Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is a mega city that sits in both Europe and Asia, divided by the Bosporus. Although it is the largest city of Turkey, it is not the capital. It is the largest city in Europe by population. It is also the 3rd largest European city in size. It was the capital city of the old Ottoman Empire until 1923. The city has been known since ancient times by the older names Byzantium and Constantinople (Latin: Constantinopolis; Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoúpolis). Being a seaport, Istanbul is the main trade center of Turkey.
|Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality|
|- Byzantium||c. 660 BC|
|- Constantinople||330 AD|
|- Istanbul||1930 (officially)[a]|
|• Mayor||Ekrem İmamoğlu (CHP)|
|• Metro||5,343 km2 (2,063 sq mi)|
|• Metropolitan municipality||15,067,724|
|• Rank||1st Turkey, 2nd World|
|• Density||2,593/km2 (6,720/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (FET)|
34000 to 34850
|Area code(s)||(+90) 212 (European side) |
(+90) 216 (Asian side)
|Website||Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality|
Istanbul faces the Golden Horn and the Bosporus strait. The Bosphorus connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, and separates Europe and Asia. The city is actually in both Europe and Asia. One-third of the people live on the Asian side. Its population is between 11 and 15 million people, making it one of the largest cities in Europe. Many people migrate to Istanbul every year.
Its original name was Byzantion in the Greek language, known as Byzantium in the Latin language. Byzantium was originally settled as a colony by Greeks from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king, Byzas. In 196 AD, Byzantium was damaged by the Romans, then rebuilt by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus. Constantine the Great thought this city was in a nice location, and in 330, moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to there, as New Rome (Latin: Nova Roma; Greek: Νέα Ρώμη, Nea Rómi), renaming the city Constantinople, after his name.
When the Roman Empire was later divided into two, the East Roman Empire was known as the Byzantine Empire, and its capital was in Constantinople, where Hagia Sophia had been built. Although it was captured by Crusaders for a time, it continued as one of the political, cultural, religious, and economic centers of Europe until it finally fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Istanbul became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1453. After the Ottoman Empire ended, the Republic of Turkey was started with its capital at Ankara. Later in 1930, Constantinople was renamed Istanbul.
The Romanlar (Turkish Gypsys) have lived in Istanbul since 1054 at Sulukule, well known for their Music and Dance style. After 1453, by order of Mehmed II, Roma was settled in Istanbul from other parts of the Ottoman Empire. In some cases, they live in several Mahallas (quarters) together with Turks in Istanbul in the European and Asian parts of this City.
- Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
- "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2012". The Turkish Statistical Institute. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Istanbul embraces two continents". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- "THE GYPSIES OF ISTANBUL | History of Istanbul".