|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1562 1563 1564 – 1565 – 1566 1567 1568|
- March 1 – the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.
- April 27 – Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
- May 18 – The Ottoman troops landed on the island of Malta. The Great Siege of Malta began.
- June 17 – Matsunaga Hisahide assassinates the 13th Ashikaga Shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru.
- August 28 – St. Augustine, Florida (named after St. Augustine), established. It is the oldest remaining European settlement in the United States.
- September 4 – Spanish fleet of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés lands on modern-day Florida to oust the French under Jean Ribault. He later destroys the French colony of Fort Caroline.
- September 8 – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés settles in St. Augustine, Florida.
- September 8 – The Knights of Malta lift the Turkish Siege of Malta (siege started on May 18).