2003 invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq (March 20, 2003 - May 1, 2003) was the war fought by the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Poland and some other countries against Iraq, to end the rule of Saddam Hussein. The main reason that the war started was said to be because the British and American Governments believed that Iraq had dangerous weapons of mass destruction (such as chemical or nuclear weapons) that could be used against other countries. This turned out after the invasion to not be true.
|2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Part of the Iraq War|
From left to right: Marines of the U.S. 1st Marine Regiment escort Iraqi prisoners of war; a convoy of U.S. military vehicles in a sandstorm; U.S. soldiers watch an enemy building in Baghdad burn; Iraqi civilians cheer as a statue of Saddam Hussein is toppled.
|Commanders and leaders|
Kosrat Rasul Ali
Abid Hamid Mahmud
Ali Hassan al-Majid
Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri
Taha Yassin Ramadan
|Iraqi National Congress: 620||
Iraqi Armed Forces: 538,000 active
Shia Al Mahdi Army: 1600–2800
|Casualties and losses|
238 dead, 1,000+ wounded
13,500–45,000 (extrapolated from fatality rates in units serving around Baghdad)
Total: 7,600–8,000 killed
Another reason for the start of the war was that many people thought that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, one of the leaders of al-Qaeda, was hiding in Iraq after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Though Saddam Hussein was not involved in the planning of the September 11 attacks, many people accused him of giving al-Qaeda a safe place to hide from the United States. The war was extremely controversial. Many British and American people blamed British Prime Minister Tony Blair and the American President, George W. Bush.
Paratroopers landed in the far north of Iraq and a few soldiers attacked from the sea, but most invaded from Kuwait in the south. 4,734 NATO soldiers were killed in Iraq war including 4,600 U.S. servicemen, 179 UK servicemen and 139 Other NATO soldiers with a total of 4900 casualties. 31,882 U.S. servicemen and over 3,600 UK servicemen were wounded in Iraq. More than 180,000 Iraqi civilians who were not soldiers were also killed.
On December 30 2008, US soldier Christopher Lotter was killed in Tikrit as retaliation for Saddam's execution on December 30 2006 Army Pfc. Christopher W. Lotter| Military Times. On April 18 2010, ISIS leaders Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi were killed in a raid 10 km (6 mi) of Tikrit in a safe house.
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- Kahana, Ephraim; Suwaed, Muhammad (2009). The A to Z of Middle Eastern Intelligence. Scarecrow Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-8108-7070-3.
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- "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
- Katzman, Kenneth (5 February 2009). "Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security" (PDF). fpc.state.gov/. Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
In the war, Iraq's conventional military forces were overwhelmed by the approximately 380,000-person U.S. and British-led 30-country18 "coalition of the willing" force, a substantial proportion of which were in supporting roles.
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- MAJ Isaac J. Peltier. "Surrogate Warfare: The Role of U.S. Army Special Forces" (PDF). p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
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- icasualties Iraq Coalition Casualties: U.S. Wounded Totals Archived 24 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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- "Body counts". By Jonathan Steele. The Guardian. 28 May 2003.
- Iraq Body Count project Archived 14 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is Press Release 15 :: Iraq Body Count. Archived 9 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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- "Iraq Body Count". www.iraqbodycount.org.
- "Excerpts: Annan interview". 16 September 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- Encyclopedia Britannica's Article on 2003 War
- Architects of Illegal American-Iraq 2003 war: George Bush jr, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld found guilty of war crimes!
- War Report. More than 5,000 articles, documents and analyses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, updated four times a week—Project on Defense Alternatives.
- CIA’s final report Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine
- Occupation of Iraq Timeline at the History Commons
- Morgues so full, bodies turned away Archived 2006-12-12 at the Wayback Machine
- The War In Context News aggregator
- ProCon's examination of Iraq Invasion Archived 2008-06-20 at the Wayback Machine
- by Professor Dr. Sedat Laciner, "Ten Impasses of the Resistance in Iraq" Archived 2005-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Amnesty International Report on Iraq Archived 2003-04-28 at the Wayback Machine