The Amborellaceae are distinctive. They are sprawling evergreen shrubs or small trees. Their tissue is different from any other Angiosperm. The xylem of Amborella contains only tracheids; vessel elements are absent. Xylem of this form has long been regarded as a "primitive" feature of flowering plants.
- Carlquist S.J. & Schneider E.L. 2001. Vegetative anatomy of the New Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin. Pacific Science 55 (3): 305–312. 
- Simpson, M. (2006). Plant systematics. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.