Angolan War of Independence

conflict in Angola between 1961 and 1975

The Angolan War of Independence was from 1961 to 1975. Angola fought against Portugal. Portugal was making people in Angola farm cotton. Three different groups in Angola were against Portugal. Agostinho Neto was the leader of the war. Portugal was winning the war when the country's government became democratic. An agreement was signed to let Angola become independent.

Angolan War of Independence
Part of The Portuguese Colonial Wars

Portuguese troops on patrol in Angola
Date1961 - 1975
Result Alvor Agreement, Angolan independence, start of Angolan Civil War[1]
National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA)
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA)
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC)
Portugal Estado Novo (Portugal)
Supported By:
 South Africa
Commanders and leaders
Holden Roberto
Jonas Savimbi
Agostinho Neto
Cuba Fidel Castro
PortugalMarcelo Caetano
Portugal Silvino Silvério Marques
Portugal Camilo Augusto de Miranda Rebocho Vaz
Portugal Fernando Augusto Santos e Castro
90,000 65,000
Casualties and losses
50,000 2,991 killed (1,526 KIA & 1,465 non-combat related)[2]
4,684 with permanent deficiency (physical or psychological)

About three thousand people died because of the war.[3]


  1. Crocker, Chester A.; Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela R. Aall (2005). Grasping The Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict. p. 213.
  2. Portugal Angola
  3. The Decolonization of Portuguese Africa: Metropolitan Revolution and the Dissolution of Empire by Norrie MacQueen - Mozambique since Independence: Confronting Leviathan by Margaret Hall, Tom Young - Author of Review: Stuart A. Notholt African Affairs, Vol. 97, No. 387 (Apr., 1998), pp. 276-278, JSTOR