Armenians

nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands

Armenians (Armenian: հայեր, romanized: Hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. According to various estimates, the total population of Armenians in the world is 7 to 9 million.[1] Armenians are the heirs of the ancient Urartian people.[2]

Armenians
Armenian: Հայեր, romanized: Hayer
Flag of Armenia.svg
Flag of Armenia
Total population
c. 79 million[3]
Map of the Armenian Diaspora in the World.svg
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia 2,961,514[4][a]
Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh 137,380[6]
Flag of Russia.svg Russia2,000,000+[b]–2,500,000[8]
Flag of the United States.svg United States1,500,000[c]
Flag of France.svg France250,000[8]–750,000[10]
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia~168,000[11][d]
Flag of Iran.svg Iran180,000[e]–200,000[13]
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon105,000[f][g]
Flag of Syria.svg Syria70,000[h]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine99.900[i]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada63,810[j]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey210,000–220,000[k][l]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia16,723[20]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands1,351[m]
Languages
Armenian
Religion
Christianity
Islam

HistoryEdit

Kingdom of UrartuEdit

Armenians are the heirs of the ancient Urartian people.[2] A. E. Redgate says that the Urartians are the "most easily identifiable" ancestors of the Armenians.[22] Moreover, the words "Armenia" and "Urartu" were used synonymously in history.[23] Philip D. Curtin defined the Kingdom of Urartu as an Armenian kingdom.[24]

 
Kingdom of Urartu, during King Rusa I.

The territory of the ancient Kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.[25]

 
Fragment of a bronze helmet from Urartian king Argishti I's era. The "tree of life", popular among the ancient societies, is depicted.

After the collapse of the Kingdom of Urartu, the kingdom's lands first became part of the Medes and then the Achaemenid Empire.

Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)Edit

Orontid dynasty

 
Kingdom of Armenia, under the Orontid dynasty, 250 BC.

The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni, was a hereditary Armenian[26][27][28] dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Kingdom of Urartu. Most historians say the Orontids are of Iranian origin.[29][30][31][32][33] The dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 321 BC to 200 BC. Weakened by the Seleucid Empire, the last Orontid king of Armenia, Orontes IV, was overthrown in 200 BC.

Artaxiad dynasty

Kingdom of Armenia was re-established in 190 BC by Artaxias I. Artaxias seized Yervandashat, united the Armenian Highlands at the expense of neighboring tribes and founded the new royal capital Artaxata near the Araxes River. The dynasty probably had ancestral links with the Orontid (Eruandid) dynasty of Iranian origin.[30][34] Artaxiad dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 190 BC until their overthrow in 12 AD. The most famous member of the dynasty; Tigranes the Great, during his reign extended the borders of the Kingdom of Armenia from the Caspian Sea to Mediterranean.[35] During the reign of Tigranes the Great, the Kingdom of Armenia was called the "Armenian Empire".

 
The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great.

Like the majority Armenia's inhabitants, Tigranes was a follower of Zoroastrianism.[36][37] He had Greek rhetoricians and philosophers in his court, possibly as a result of the influence of his queen, Cleopatra.[36] Following the example of the Parthians, Tigranes used the title of Philhellene ("friend of the Greeks").[36]

Arsacid dynasty

 
Kingdom of Armenia under the Arsacid dynasty, 150 AD.

Arsacid dynasty or Arshakuni, ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 12[n] to 428.[38] The dynasty was a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia. Arsacid kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad dynasty until 63 when Tiridates I secured Arsacid rule in Armenia. However, he did not succeed in establishing his line on the throne, and various Arsacid members of different lineages ruled until the accession of Vologases II, who succeeded in establishing his own line on the Armenian throne.[38] The Arsacid dynasty was overthrown by the Sasanid Empire in 428, and this was the end of the Kingdom of Armenia.

Kingdom of Armenia (mediaval)Edit

Ashot I's prestige rose as both Byzantine and Arab leaders courted him. The Abbasid Caliphate recognized Ashot as "prince of princes" in 862 and, later on, as king. Several contemporary prominent Armenians, including Grigor-Derenik Vaspurakan, insisted on Ashot's coronation.[39] Ashot was crowned King of Armenia through the consent of Caliph al-Mu'tamid in 885 to prevent intrusion into Armenian territory by Basil I, a Byzantine emperor of Armenian origin.[40] The establishment of the Bagratuni kingdom later led to the founding of several other Armenian principalities and kingdoms: Taron, Vaspurakan, Kars, Khachen and Syunik.[41] During the reign of Ashot III (952/53–77), Ani became the kingdom's capital and grew into a thriving economic and cultural center.[42] The first half of the 11th century saw the decline and eventual collapse of the kingdom. The Byzantine emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) won a string of victories and annexed parts of southwestern Armenia. King Hovhannes-Smbat felt forced to cede his lands and in 1022 promised to "will" his kingdom to the Byzantines following his death. However, after Hovhannes-Smbat's death in 1041, his successor, Gagik II, refused to hand over Ani and continued resistance until 1045, when his kingdom, plagued with internal and external threats, was finally taken by Byzantine forces.[43]

Armenian Kingdom of CiliciaEdit

The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded 1080 by the Rubenid dynasty, an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratuni dynasty, which at various times had held the throne of Armenia. Their capital was originally at Tarsus, and later became Sis.[44] Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, since Armenia proper was under foreign occupation at the time. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region.

In 1198, with the crowning of Leo I, King of Armenia of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom.[45]

In 1226, the crown was passed to rival Hethumids through Leo's daughter Isabella's second husband, Hethum I. As the Mongols conquered vast regions of Central Asia and the Middle East, Hethum and succeeding Hethumid rulers sought to create an Armeno-Mongol alliance against common Muslim foes, most notably the Mamluks. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crusader states and the Mongol Ilkhanate disintegrated, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. After relentless attacks by the Mamluks in Egypt in the fourteenth century, the Cilician Armenia of the Lusignan dynasty, mired in an internal religious conflict, finally fell in 1375.[46]

Commercial and military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of Western European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, and the use of French titles, names, and language. Moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism.[47] The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building and church architecture. Cilician Armenia thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East–West trade.[47]

Ottoman-Iranian-Russian dominationEdit

From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell under Iranian Safavid rule.[48][49] Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geo-political rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,[50] Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Iranian Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule. In the late 1820s, the parts of historic Armenia under Iranian control centering on Yerevan and Lake Sevan (all of Eastern Armenia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire following Iran's forced ceding of the territories after its loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) Western Armenia however, remained in Ottoman hands.

 
About 1,500,000 million Armenians were killed during the Armenian genocide in 1915–1918.

The ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide, The Ottoman Empire massacred approximately 1,500,000 Armenians. The first wave of persecution was in the years 1894 to 1896, the second one culminating in the events of the Armenian genocide in 1915 and 1916. With World War I in progress, the Ottoman Empire accused the Armenians as liable to ally with Imperial Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire.

Modern periodEdit

The First Republic of Armenia was established in 1918, but collapsed in 1920. In 1921, the Republic of Mountainous Armenia was established but collapsed in the same year. Afterwards Armenia came under the Soviet administration and became one of the Soviet Republics. In 1991, like other Soviet Republics, Armenia gained its independence.

SourcesEdit

  • Frye, Richard N (1984). The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C.H. Beck. p. 73. ISBN 978-3406093975. The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.
  • Kleiss, Wolfram (2008). "URARTU IN IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica. The territory of the ancient kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.
  • Redgate, A. E (2000). The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-0631220374. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.
  • Toumanoff, Cyril (1986). "Arsacids vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia". Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 543–546.
  • Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia.
  • Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-78023-070-2.
  • Saunders, Robert A.; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia.
  • Herzig, Edmund; Kurkchiyan, Marina (2004). The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-203-00493-7.
  • Ward, Steven R. (2014). Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-62616-032-3.
  • Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց [History of Armenia] (in Armenian). Vol. II. Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի [Council of National Education Publishing].
  • Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393).
  • Bournoutian, George; Atamian, Ani (1997). Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). "Cilician Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century.
  • Grigoryan, M. (2012). "Բագրատունյաց թագավորության սկզբնավորման թվագրության շուրջ [On Dating Bagratid Armenia]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (2–3): 114–125.
  • Ghafadaryan, Karo (1984). "Անի [Ani]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia (in Armenian). Vol. 1. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. pp. 407–412.
  • Grousset, René (2008) [1947]. Histoire de l'Arménie des origines à 1071 [History of the Origins of Armenia until 1071]. Paris. p. 394. ISBN 978-2-228-88912-4.
  • Garsoïan, Nina (2007) [1982]. Indépendance retrouvée : royaume du Nord et royaume du Sud (IXe-XIe siècle) - Le royaume du Nord" [Independence Found: Northern Kingdom and Southern Kingdom (9th - 11th Century) - The Northern Kingdom]. Histoire du peuple arménien [History of the Armenian People]. Toulouse. p. 244. ISBN 978-2-7089-6874-5.
  • Bournoutian, George A. (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People: From Ancient Times to the Present. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-56859-141-4.
  • Versluys, Miguel John (2017). Visual Style and Constructing Identity in the Hellenistic World: Nemrud Dağ and Commagene under Antiochos I. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-107-14197-1. Most scholars assume that Ptolemy was the first Commagenean king and that he descended from the Armenian Orontids.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (2012). The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-300-11884-1. Under Tigranes the Great (95–55 B.C.), the Armenian empire stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean.
  • Maranci, Christina (2018). The Art of Armenia: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-19-093588-7. (...) the Armenian dynasty of the Yervandids (Orontids).
  • Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5. At least three times in history, Armenians rose to unusual territorial power. The first was in the ninth to the sixth century B.C., where the Armenian kingdom of Urartu was an important stopping point for trade between Asia and the Mediterranean world.
  • de Jong, Albert (2015). Armenian and Georgian Zoroastrianism. In Stausberg, Michael; Vevaina, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw; Tessmann, Anna (eds.). The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 119–120, 123–12.
  • Binns, John (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-521-66738-0.
  • Lang, David M (1983). Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3. The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. Cambridge University Press. p. 535. ISBN 0-521-20092-X. Here a scion of the Armenian Orontid house, King Antiochus I (...) Armenian dynasty of the Orontids.
  • Lang, David (1970). Armenia; Cradle of Civilization. Routledge.
  • Canepa, Matthew P. (2020). The Iranian Expanse: Transforming Royal Identity Through Architecture, Landscape, and the Built Environment, 550 BCE–642 CE. University of California Press.
  • Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh (2016). Ancient Iranian Motifs and Zoroastrian Iconography. I.B. Tauris. pp. 179–203. ISBN 9780857728159.
  • Boyce, Mary (1984). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Psychology Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780415239028.
  • Russell, James R. (1987). Zoroastrianism in Armenia. Harvard University Press. pp. 170–171, 268. ISBN 978-0674968509.
  • Garsoïan, Nina (2005). "TIGRAN II". Encyclopæedia Iranica.
  • Garsoïan, Nina (2004). "ARMENO-IRANIAN RELATIONS in the pre-Islamic period". Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 418–438.
  • Facella, Margherita (2021). "Orontids". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  • Mach, Chahin (2001). Kingdom of Armenia. Surrey. Routledge. pp. 185–190.
  • Russell, J.R. (1986). "Armenia and Iran iii. Armenian Religion". Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 438–444.
  • Sartre, Maurice (2005). The Middle East Under Rome. Harvard University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0674016835.
  • Allsen, Thomas T. (2011). The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0812201079.
  • Toumanoff, Cyril (1963). Studies in Christian Caucasian history. Washington DC. Georgetown University Press. p. 278.
  • Donabedian, Patrick (1994). The History of Karabagh from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century. In Chorbajian, Levon; Mutafian, Claude (eds.). The Caucasian Knot: The History & Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh. Zed Books. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-85649-288-1.
  • Adontz, Nicolas (1970). The Reform of Justinian Armenia. Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 310.
  • Olson, James (1994). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. Greenwood Press. p. 42.
  • Daniela, Dueck (2017). "Strabo and the history of Armenia". The Routledge Companion to Strabo. Routledge. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9781138904330.
  • Laitin, David D.; Suny, Ronald Grigor (1999). Armenia and Azerbaijan: thinking a way out of Karabakh. (PDF) Middle East Policy. 7: 145.
  • Romeny, R. B. ter Haar (2010). Religious Origins of Nations?: The Christian Communities of the Middle East. Brill. p. 264. ISBN 9789004173750.
  • Dufoix, Stéphane (2008). Diasporas. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-520-25359-9. Current statistics suggest a population of 7 million Armenians worldwide, 3 million of whom in Armenia.
  • Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. New York: Facts On File. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. Estimates suggest that the global Armenian population is 7 million...
  • Freedman, Jeri (2008). The Armenian Genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4042-1825-3. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the United States and Russia.
  • Herb, Guntram H.; Kaplan, David H. (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 1705. ISBN 978-1-85109-908-5. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.
  • Von Voss, Huberta, ed. (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World (1st English ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 978-1-84545-257-5. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...
  • Philander, S. George, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country...
  • O'Reilly, Andrea (2010). Encyclopedia of Motherhood. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4129-6846-1. Today, there are about 9 million Armenians around the world.
  • Goble, Paul (2017). "Islamicized Armenians in Turkey: A Bridge or a Threat?". Jamestown Foundation. One such group is the Hemshins of Turkey, a community of approximately 150,000 people who have Armenian backgrounds, often speak Armenian, but have become Islamicized.
  • Ayvazyan, Hovhannes (2003). Հայ Սփյուռք հանրագիտարան [Encyclopedia of Armenian Diaspora] (in Armenian). Vol. 1. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia publishing. p. 100. ISBN 978-5-89700-020-3.
  • Taylor, Tony (2008). Denial: History Betrayed. Melbourne University Pub. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-522-85482-4.
  • Caroline, Thon (2012). Armenians in Hamburg: An ethnographic exploration into the relationship between diaspora and success. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-643-90226-9.
  • Agadjanian, Alexander (2016). Armenian Christianity Today: Identity Politics and Popular Practice. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-317-17857-6. Exact numbers of Armenian in Istanbul vary by source; there are probably around 60,000 or 70,000.
  • Cheterian, Vicken (2015). Open Wounds: Armenians, Turks and a Century of Genocide. Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-19-026350-8. This village, the sole remaining Armenian village in Turkey, has only 130 inhabitants.
  • Gellman, Mneesha (2016). Democratization and Memories of Violence: Ethnic minority rights movements in Mexico, Turkey, and El Salvador. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-317-35831-2. Today, there are roughly 60,000 Armenian citizens of Turkey living in Istanbul (...)
  • Mirzoyan, Alla (2010). Armenia, the Regional Powers, and the West: Between History and Geopolitics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 109. ISBN 9780230106352. (...) Today, the Armenian community in Iran numbers around 200,000 (...)

ReferencesEdit

  1. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv; O'Reilly 2010, p. 74.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Frye 1984, p. 73.
  3. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv; O'Reilly 2010, p. 74.
  4. "2011 Census Results" (PDF). National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia. p. 144.
  5. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  6. "De Jure Population (Urban, Rural) by Age and Ethnicity" (PDF). National Statistical Service of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. "Interview with Rossiya TV channel". President of Russia. 7 October 2020, "Suffice it to say that some 2 million Azerbaijanis and over 2 million Armenians live in Russia, as far as we know."
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Caroline 2012, p. 25.
  9. "President Biden's message to Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan on the occasion of 30th anniversary of Armenia's Independence". U.S. Embassy in Armenia. 21 September 2021, "Our two nations are bonded by history, family, and friendship, including 1.5 million Armenian-Americans whose contributions enrich and strengthen our bilateral ties."
  10. Taylor 2008, p. 4.
  11. "National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. "Georgia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  13. Mirzoyan 2010, p. 109.
  14. "Lebanon". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  15. "National composition of population". State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  16. "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada.
  17. Gellman 2016, p. 144.
  18. Agadjanian 2016, p. 150.
  19. Goble 2017.
  20. "The People of Australia – Statistics from the 2011 Census" (PDF). Australian Government. 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. "CBS Statline". Statistics Netherlands (CBS).
  22. Redgate 2000, p. 5.
  23. Oriental Studies in the USSR. Indiana University: Nauka Publishers, Central Department of Oriental Literature. (1988). p. 312, "(...) Here, as we know from the abovementionaed inscriptions, “Armenia” and “Urartu” were synonyms (...)"
  24. Curtin 1984, p. 185.
  25. Kleiss 2008.
  26. Lang 1983, p. 535.
  27. Versluys 2017, p. 48.
  28. Maranci 2018, p. 21.
  29. Toumanoff 1963, p. 278.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Garsoïan 2005.
  31. Sartre 2005, p. 23.
  32. Facella 2021.
  33. Russell 1986, p. 438–444.
  34. Garsoïan 2004, p. 418–438.
  35. Wilken 2012, p. 229.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Romeny 2010, p. 264.
  37. Curtis 2016, p. 185.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Toumanoff 1986, p. 543–546.
  39. Grousset 2008, p. 394.
  40. Garsoïan 2007, p. 244.
  41. Ter-Ghevondyan; Aram, N (1976). «Բագրատունիների Թագավորություն» (Bagratuni Kingdom). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. (in Armenian). Vol. 2. Yerevan: Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 202.
  42. Ghafadaryan 1984, pp. 407–412.
  43. Bournoutian 2006, p. 87.
  44. Edwards 1987.
  45. Kurdoghlian 1996.
  46. Ghazarian 2000.
  47. 47.0 47.1 Bournoutian & Atamian 1997.
  48. Rayfield 2013, p. 165.
  49. Ward 2014, p. 43.
  50. Herzig & Kurkchiyan 2004, p. 47.

NotesEdit

  1. %98,1 of population[5]
  2. Russian president Vladimir Putin said that more than 2,000,000 Armenians live in Russia.[7]
  3. United States President Joe Biden said there are 1,500,000 Armenian Americans.[9]
  4. %4,5 of population[12]
  5. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[8]
  6. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[8]
  7. According to CIA, Lebanon's population is %4 Armenian[14]
  8. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[8]
  9. According to the 2001 census, 99,000 Armenians live in Ukraine.[15]
  10. According to the 2016 census, 63,810 Armenians live in Canada.[16]
  11. Armenians of Istanbul: 60,000–70,000[17][18] Hemshin Armenians: 150,000[19]
  12. The Armenian population in Turkey is usually defined as between 60,000 and 80,000, this is because the Hemshin Armenians, who have a population of 150,000, generally are not included.
  13. According to the Statistics Netherlands (CBS), 1,351 people of Armenian nationality live in the Netherlands.[21]
  14. They reigned intermittently until 12 to 63.