Bashar al-Assad (born 11 September 1965) is the president of Syria and the head of the Ba'ath Party in Syria. Assad has held these positions since the death of his father Hafez al-Assad (1930-2000), who had ruled Syria since 1971.
بشار حافظ الأسد
Bashar al-Assad in 2018.
|President of Syria|
|Assumed office |
17 July 2000
|Preceded by||Abdul Halim Khaddam (Acting)|
|Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
|Assumed office |
24 June 2000
|Preceded by||Hafez al-Assad|
|Member of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
|Assumed office |
21 June 2000
Bashar Hafez al-Assad
11 September 1965
|Political party||Ba'ath Party|
|National Progressive Front|
|Alma mater||Damascus University|
|Branch/service||Syrian Armed Forces|
|Years of service||1988–|
Presently serving as commander-in-chief
|Battles/wars||Syrian civil war (2011–)|
Assad was born on 11 September 1965 in Damascus, Syria to Hafez al-Assad and Anisa Makhlouf. He had two brothers, Bassel al-Assad and Shabbih Maher al-Assad, and one sister, Bushra al-Assad. Bashar was quiet and reserved and was not interested in politics or the military.
His father wanted Assad's elder brother Bassel to succeed him as leader of Syria. Bassel died in a car accident in 1994, and Assad returned home to Syria.
When his father died, the government changed the constitution. Under Syrian law the president had to be at least 40 years old. With the law changed, Assad was able to be elected President of Syria in June 2000. He was also made commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and leader of the Ba'ath Party which has ruled Syria since 1961.
Syrian Civil WarEdit
Large protests began in January 2011. The protesters wanted political reforms, an end to the state of emergency (which had been in place since 1963), and the return of civil rights. The protests in March were the largest to take place, and the government used violence against the protestors.
In January 2012, Reuters claimed that over 5,000 civilians and protesters (including militants) had been killed by the Syrian army, security agents and militia, while 1,100 people had been killed by terrorists.
The referendum was held in February 2012. The referendum would change the term limits of future Syrian presidents. It passed with 90% support. The U.S. and Turkey did not accept the results. The European Union pushed new sanctions on the government.
In September 2015, Russia got involved in the Syrian Civil War. President of Russia Vladimir Putin said that Russia's goal in Syria is to "stabilis[e] the legitimate power in Syria and creat[e] the conditions for political compromise." In November 2015, Assad said that the two months of Russian intervention had accomplished more than the U.S.-led coalition had done in a year.
After the election of Donald Trump, the U.S. no longer wished to remove Assad from power. That changed after the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack. Donald Trump ordered missile strikes to hit a Syrian airbase. Assad responded by saying that the United States's behaviour was an "unjust and arrogant aggression." He also said that the Syrian army had given up all its chemical weapons in 2013. He claimed that the chemical attack was a lie and was used to justify a U.S. airstrike.
As of March 2018, between 350,000 and 511,000 people have been killed in the civil war.
Assad is married to Asma al-Akhras. Together, they have three children; Hafez, Jr., Zein, and Karim al-Assad.
Influenced by his western education and urban upbringing, Bashar initially seemed eager to implement a cultural revolution in Syria.
- "Bashar al-Assad (president of Syria) --". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Syrians Vote For Assad in Uncontested Referendum". The Washington Post. 28 May 2007.
- "Syria's Assad wins another term". BBC News. 29 May 2007.
- Bar, Shmuel (2006). Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview (PDF) (Report). The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy Institute for Policy and Strategy. p. 16 & 379. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Bashar al-Assad Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". biography.com. 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Daraa: The spark that lit the Syrian flame". CNN. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- "Administration Takes Additional Steps to Hold the Government of Syria Accountable for Violent Repression Against the Syrian People". United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
Today, President Obama signed an Executive Order (E.O. 13573) imposing sanctions against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and six other senior officials of the Government of Syria in an effort to increase pressure on the Government of Syria to end its use of violence against its people and to begin a transition to a democratic system that protects the rights of the Syrian people.
- "EU imposes sanctions on President Assad". BBC News. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Canada imposes sanctions on Syrian leaders". BBC News. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Speech of H.E. President Bashar al-Assad at Damascus University on the situation in Syria". Syrian Arab News Agency. 21 June 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Khaled Yacoub Oweis (13 December 2011). "Syria death toll hits 5,000 as insurgency spreads". Reuters.
- "Syria's Assad blames 'foreign conspiracy'". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Martin Chulov in Beirut (27 February 2012). "Syria claims 90% of voters backed reforms in referendum". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Syria in civil war, Red Cross says". BBC News. 15 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Syrian death toll tops 19,000, say activists". The Guardian. London. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Hadid, Diaa (1 November 2014). "Syria's Alawites Pay Heavy Price as They Bury Sons". Associated Press. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Путин назвал основную задачу российских военных в Сирии". Interfax. 11 October 2015.(Russian)
- "ВКС РФ за два месяца добились большего прогресса в Сирии, чем альянс США за год" [Russian air force have in two months achieved more progress in Syria that the U.S. alliance in a year]. Kommersant. 22 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. (Russian)
- Staff writer(s) (17 December 2016). "Evacuation agreement reached in Aleppo, rebel group says". Fox 6 Now. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "U.S. priority on Syria no longer focused on 'getting Assad out': Haley". Reuters. 30 March 2017.
- Treene, Alayna (6 April 2017). "Tillerson: U.S. will lead coalition to oust Assad".
- "Syria's Assad says Idlib chemical attack 'fabrication': AFP interview". Reuters. 13 April 2017.
- "Syria war has killed more than 350,000 in 7 years: monitor". Daily Mail. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- "Syrian Observatory says war has killed more than half a million". Reuters. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
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Media related to Bashar al-Assad at Wikimedia Commons
- President Al-Assad on Facebook
- Official website
- Profile at the LookLex Encyclopedia
- Unofficial website
- Unofficial website
- Bashar al-Assad on IMDb
- Syria’s Proxy Forces in Iraq, Al-Hayat (London), 12 April 2003 at Middle East Intelligence Bulletin
- Profile: Syria's Bashar al-Assad BBC News, 10 March 2005
- Bashar al-Assad's Lebanon Gamble, William Harris, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2005
- Assad on the Brink, David Hirst, The Nation, 21 November 2005
- Syria's Leaders, Esther Pan, Council on Foreign Relations, 10 March 2006
- Connecting the dots in Lebanon, Omar Raad, Ya Libnan Volunteer, 2 December 2006
- The Assad Dynasty in Syria: From Father to Son, Kristin Helberg, Deutsche Welle, 2009 at qantara.de
- Interview With Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, The Wall Street Journal, 31 January 2011
- Profile: Bashar al-Assad, Al Jazeera English, 25 March 2011