Natural enemies of insect pests include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens. Predators, such as birds, lady beetles and lacewings, are free-living species that eat many prey during their lifetime.
Parasitoids are species whose larvae develop on or in a single insect host, ultimately killing or fatally infecting the host. Most have a very narrow host range. Many species of wasps and some flies are parasitoids.
There are three basic types of biological control strategies; conservation, classical biological control, and augmentation.
- Conservation: Avoid using pesticides, which kill the natural enemies of the pests. Encourage the growth of those things which attack the pests. Use companion planting where possible. In China, the mosquito fern has been used for at least a thousand years, as a companion plant for rice crops. It hosts a special cyanobacteria that fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere, and also blocks out light from competing plants (but not the rice, which grows taller).
- Classical biological control: This is the introduction of natural enemies to a new area where they did not originate or do not occur naturally. Thereafter, the predator lives as a natural part of the habitat, reproducing and killing the pest species. This method is especially effective when the pest is itself an invasive or introduced species in the area. Free of its natural enemies, the pest multiplies to huge numbers. The introduction from its homeland of an enemy or two can be very successful. One example is the use of Larinus planus to control the Canada thistle.
An early exampleEdit
A Chinese text from 304 AD, Records of the plants and trees of the southern regions, by Hsi Han, describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants. The ants attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. The citrus ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) was rediscovered in the 20th century, and now is again used in China to protect orange groves.
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- Meaning they do not attack too many other species.
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