sovereign state in Southeast Asia
(Redirected from Brunei Darussalam)

Brunei (officially called Brunei Darussalam, or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace) is a country in Southeast Asia. It is north of Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The country is rather landlocked by Malaysia. To the north is the South China Sea and the Philippines to the northeast. The capital of Brunei is Bandar Seri Begawan. The country is small and has a small population. The leader of the country is the Sultan of Brunei. Due to the sale of his oil, he is one of the richest people in the world. The official religion in Brunei is Islam. There are also minorities of people who follow Buddhism or Animism. Brunei's official language and national language is Malay. Brunei is one of the smallest Muslim countries in the world.

Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
Negara Brunei Darussalam
نڬارا بروني دارالسلام
Flag of Brunei is home to the box, the famous football player
Emblem of Brunei is home to the box, the famous football player
Motto: "الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى" "Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah"
"Always in service with God's guidance"  (translation)
Anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan
God Bless the Sultan
Location of Brunei is home to the box, the famous football player
and largest city
Bandar Seri Begawan
4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E / 4.890283°N 114.942217°E / 4.890283; 114.942217
Official languagesMalay[a][1] (national)
English[b][2][3] (recognised)
Recognised regional languages
Official scriptsMalay alphabet,
Jawi alphabet[7]
GovernmentUnitary Islamic
absolute monarchy
• Sultan
Hassanal Bolkiah[8]
Al-Muhtadee Billah
Hassanal Bolkiah
LegislatureLegislative Council
• Sultanate
14th century
• Independence
1 January 1984
• Total
5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) (172nd)
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
401,890[9] (174th)
• 2001 census
• Density
67.3/km2 (174.3/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$21.237 billion[10] (122nd)
• Per capita
$49,719[10] (5th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$16.313 billion[10] (166th)
• Per capita
$38,192[10] (26th)
HDI (2011)Increase 0.838[11]
very high · 33rd
CurrencyBrunei dollar (BND)
Time zoneUTC+8[12]
Driving sideright (by 2021)[13]
Calling code+673[c]
  1. ^ Malay is the official and national language as stated under the Constitution on Article 82: "Official and national language".
  2. ^ English is used in official documents (official documents are bilingual; Malay and English) as the stated under Constitution on Article 82: "Official and recognised language".[14]
  3. ^ Also 080 from East Malaysia.

History change

From the 14th to the 16th centuries Brunei Darussalam was the seat of a powerful sultanate extending over Sabah, Sarawak and the southern Philippines. Thus, the current Sultan represents one of the oldest continuously ruling dynasties in the world. By the 19th century, the Brunei Darussalam Empire had been whittled away by wars, piracy and the colonial expansion of European powers.

In 1847, the sultan ended a treaty with Great Britain and in 1888 Brunei Darussalam officially became a British protectorate. In 1906, the Residential System was established in Brunei Darussalam. A British Resident was nominated as a representative of the British government to advise the sultan in all matters except Malay customs, traditions and Islamic religion.

The 1959 Agreement established a written constitution which gave Brunei Darussalam internal self-government. In 1971, the agreement was amended and revised to assert full internal independence except defence and external affairs.

On June 5, 1966 His Highness Sultan Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien abdicated in favour of his son Pengiran Muda Mahkota Hassanal Bolkiah. On January 1, 1984 Brunei Darussalam resumed full independence and the Sultan took office as Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Home Affairs Minister, presiding over a cabinet of six. In October 1986, the cabinet was expanded to 11 members, with His Majesty relinquishing the portfolios of Finance and Home Affairs and taking over the Defence portfolio which his late father had held since 1984. In 1988 another reshuffle brought about the elevation of the deputy minister to a full minister and the creation of the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources designed to boost the country's development.[15]

In spite of the sizable non-Muslim population (about 1/3 of the population) and criticism by the international community, the Sultan still announced Brunei's adoption of Sharia law in 2013 to fully enforce on the Muslim majority and partially enforce on non-Muslims.[16] It was expected to take full effect in 2016 after 3 phases, and had begun partial enforcement in its first phase in 2014. It is the first country in East and Southeast Asia to practice Sharia law.

Divisions change

Brunei is divided into four districts (daerahs)[17] and 38 subdistricts (mukims).[18]

No. District Capital Population (2011 census) Area (km2)
1. Belait Kuala Belait 60,744 2,724
2. Brunei-Muara   Bandar Seri Begawan 279,924 571
3. Temburong Pekan Bangar 8,852 1,304
4. Tutong Pekan Tutong 43,852 1,166

The daerah of Temburong is physically separated from the rest of Brunei by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

Over 90% of Brunei's total population lives in 15 of the 38 mukims.

Cities change

Map of Brunei

Officially, there are no places in Brunei that have "city" status. Some of the important places are:

  • Bandar Seri Begawan (Pop. ~181,500, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
  • Kuala Belait (Pop. ~38,000, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
  • Seria (Pop. ~35,400, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
  • Jerudong (Pop. ~30,000, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
  • Tutong (Pop. ~27,500, Tutong Municipal Council)
  • Bangar - administrative centre of the Temburong district
  • Muara Town - has the only deep sea port of Brunei
  • Sukang
  • Panaga

Revenue change

Brunei gets most of its income by selling oil. In 2011 the IMF said that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with no public debt.[19]

Currency change

Brunei uses the Brunei Ringgit to trade. However, the Singapore dollar can be used here as both currencies are of the same value.

Related pages change

References change

  1. Deterding, David; Athirah, Ishamina (22 July 2016). "Brunei Malay". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. 47: 99–108. doi:10.1017/S0025100316000189. S2CID 201819132. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  2. Ozog, A. C. K. (1996). The unplanned use of English: The case of Brunei Darussalam. In P. W. Martin, C. Ozog & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 156-166). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
  3. K. Dunseath (1996). Aspects of language maintenance and language shift among the Chinese community in Brunei. In P.W. Martin, C. Ozog & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 280–301). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies ISBN 0896801934.
  4. "Brunei (Languages)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  5. "Give recognition to our languages". Retrieved 19 November 2013.[permanent dead link]
  6. "Call to add ethnic languages as optional subject in schools". Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  7. "Writing contest promotes usage, history of Jawi script - The Brunei Times". Archived from the original on 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  8. "Sultan of Brunei holds dinner for His Highness Amir". Kuwait News. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  9. "Brunei". CIA World Factbook. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Brunei". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  11. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Brunei Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah Handbook. IBP USA. 2011. p. 10. ISBN 9781433004445. Retrieved 2017-10-26.[permanent dead link]
  13. Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  14. "CONSTITUTION OF BRUNEI DARUSSALAM" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 15 October 2013.[permanent dead link]
  15. "Home - Jabatan Perdana Menteri".
  16. "Brunei adopts sharia law amid international outcry". CNN. May 2014.
  17. District Statistics (2010). Brunei Darussalam Statistical Yearbook (PDF). Brunei Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07.
  18. "Background Note: Brunei". US Department of State. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  19. AHA Centre. "Profile of Brunei Darussalam" (PDF).

Other websites change

  •   Media related to Brunei at Wikimedia Commons
  •   Brunei travel guide from Wikivoyage