Christian Democratic Appeal
The Christian Democratic Appeal, Dutch: Christen-Democratisch Appèl (shortened CDA), is a political party in the Netherlands. It was the merger of three major former political parties: Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP), Christian Historical Union (CHU) and Catholic People's Party (KVP).
The party was established on 11 October 1980. From 1982 to 2006, the party was very popular in the Netherlands. Their support was strongest in the 1986, 1989, 2002, 2003 and 2006 elections. In the 2010 elections, they lost 20 seats and received less than half of the votes from the previous election. In the 2012 elections, they received 801,620 and lost 8 more seats. In the 2017 elections they won 19 seats (+6), and in the 2021 elections 15 (-4).
The party supports Christian democracy. The party can also have Jewish, Muslim and Hindu members of parliament. The party heavily supports the European Union and environmentalism. They call themselves a moderate party, but they have been in an alliance with the centre-right People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. The CDA believes that the toleration of "soft drugs" like marijuana should stop, and practices like abortion and prostitution should be limited. They also want a more friendly and open immigration policy. However, they do want immigrants to integrate into Dutch culture.
- Dries van Agt - 1976-1982
- Ruud Lubbers - 1982-1994
- Elco Brinkman - 1994
- Enneüs Heerma - 1994-1997
- Jaap de Hoop Scheffer - 1997-2001
- Jan Peter Balkenende - 2001-2010
- Maxime Verhagen - 2010-2012
- Sybrand van Haersma Buma - 2012-2019
- Pieter Heerma - 2019-2020 (actually only parliamentary leader)
- Hugo de Jonge - 2020
- Wopke Hoekstra - 2020-
- Barbara Wejnert (26 July 2010). Democratic Paths and Trends. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-85724-091-0. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Christopher Anderson (1995). Blaming the Government: Citizens and the Economy in Five European Democracies. M.E. Sharpe. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-56324-448-3. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- T. Banchoff (28 June 1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- https://www.cda.nl/standpunten/europese-unie/ (Dutch)
- https://www.cda.nl/standpunten/milieu/ (Dutch)
- https://www.cda.nl/standpunten/drugs-alcohol-en-tabak/ (Dutch)
- https://www.cda.nl/standpunten/abortus/ (Dutch)
- https://www.cda.nl/standpunten/immigratie-en-integratie/ (Dutch)
- Pieter Omtzigt quits the CDA after nearly 20 years as an MP, DutchNews.nl, 12 June 2021