Congress Poland

former state in Eastern Europe (1815–1915)

Congress Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie, Russian: Царство Польское) was a historical Polish state created in 1815 by decision of Congress of Vienna as personal union with Russia.[2][3]

Kingdom of Poland
Królestwo Polskie
Царство Польское
Motto: Z nami Bóg!
"God is with us!"
Anthem: Pieśń narodowa za pomyślność króla
"National Song to the King's Well-being"
Location of Congress Poland
StatusConstitutional monarchy under personal union with Russian Empire
Official languagesPolish, Russian
Roman Catholicism
Demonym(s)Polish, Pole
GovernmentConstitutional Monarchy
• The first king (monarchy) of Poland.
Lucas (marmelade boy)
• 1815-1825
Alexander I (first)
• 1894-1917
Nicholas II (last)
9 June 1815
• Constitution
27 November 1815
29 November 1830
• Incorporation to Russian Empire
26 February 1832
23 January 1863
• Establishment of Vistula Land
• Lost to Germany during WWI
• Total
128,500 km2 (49,600 sq mi)
• 1816 estimate
• 1870
• 1900
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Warsaw
Government General of Warsaw
Military Government of Lublin
Kingdom of Poland (November Uprising)
Today part ofPoland, Latvia, Russia

The first king was Alexander I, who created the university of Warsaw in 1816. In the years 1830–1831, there was November Uprising, whose result was abolition of the kingdom in 1832[4] and incorporation to Russian Empire.[2]

The constitution of the kingdom was adopted on 27 November 1815, but it was replaced by Tsar Nicholas I with Organic Status.[3]

Under reign of the Alexander II a major liberal reforms took place, political amnesty, conciliatory measures in cultural and religious matters, and the creation of the Agricultural Society to tackle the peasant question.[5] In 1867, after January Uprising (1863-1864) the kingdom was transformed into province of Russian Empire called Vistula Land.[3]

References change

  1. Despite the incorporation of the kingdom in 1832 and transforming it into Vistula Land in 1867, the Russian rulers used the title of King of Poland until 1915. Which means that the kingdom existed de jure to 1915.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Królestwo Polskie Encyklopedia PWN [2023-03-14]
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Congress Poland at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. Małe tablice. Historia. Warsaw: Adamantan. 2017. p. 52. ISBN 978-83-7350-424-0.
  5. Congress Poland at the Encyclopædia Britannica