Czech Republic

sovereign state in Central Europe

The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika, pronounced [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka]  (Speaker Icon.svg listen)) is a country in Central Europe. As of 2 May 2016 the official short name of the country is Czechia (Czech: Česko). The capital and the biggest city is Prague. The currency is the Czech Crown (koruna česká - CZK). €1 is about 25 CZK. The president of Czechia is Miloš Zeman. Czechia's population is about 10.5 million.

Czech Republic

Česká republika  (Czech)
Motto: "Pravda vítězí" (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Location of the  Czech Republic  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of the  Czech Republic  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083°N 14.467°E / 50.083; 14.467
Official languageCzech[1]
Officially recognised languages[2][3]
Ethnic groups
  • 86.7% non-religious or undeclared
  • 10.4% Roman Catholic
  • 2.2% other Christians
  • 0.7% other religions
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Miloš Zeman
Andrej Babiš
Chamber of Deputies
c. 870
• Czechoslovakia
(Independence from
28 October 1918
1 January 1969
• Czech Republic became independent
1 January 1993
1 May 2004
• Total
78,866 km2 (30,450 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
10,610,947 Increase[5] (84th)
• 2011 census
• Density
134/km2 (347.1/sq mi) (87th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$368.659 billion[7] (50th)
• Per capita
$35,223[7] (39th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$196.068 billion[7] (49th)
• Per capita
$19,818[7] (41st)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 25.0[8]
low · 5th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.878[9]
very high · 28th
CurrencyCzech koruna (CZK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+420b
ISO 3166 codeCZ
Internet TLD.czc
  1. The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
  2. Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
  3. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
Hradčany – Prague castle

The local language is the Czech language, a Slavic language related to languages like Slovak and Polish.

Czechia has no sea; its neighbour countries are Germany, Austria, Slovakia, and Poland.


Its history dates from the 9th century AD, for a long time it was one of the most powerful countries in Central Europe. Later on it was the biggest, most populated and richest country of the First Reich, where many Emperors started their career. Under the conditions of the Treaty of Vienna 1515 parts of Czechia, then in the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, came under Habsburg rule after the death of Louis the Jagiellon in 1526. They stayed a part of the Habsburg dynasty rule until 1918.

The area of the today's Czechia was a part of Czechoslovakia (current area of Czechia and Slovak republic) from 1918 to 1992. Czechoslovakia became independent in 1918 from Austro-Hungarian Empire. The first Czechoslovakian president was Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. In February 1948 the Communist party took over the country and for the next 41 years Czechoslovakia was a Socialist state with a rule of one (Communist) party. In 1968 there was a reformation movement (Prague Spring) within the Communist party, but reforms were stopped by the invasion of Warsaw pact armies. In November 1989 Czechoslovakia returned to democracy through the peaceful "Velvet Revolution".  Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two countries (Czechia and Slovakia) in 1993. Czechia has been a member of the European Union since May 1 2004, and a member of NATO since March 12, 1999.


The highest point in the country is Sněžka at 1,602 m (5,256 ft).

There are four national parks in Czechia. The oldest is Krkonoše National Park. The others are Šumava National Park, Podyjí National Park, Bohemian Switzerland.


In 1949 the communist government created 13 centralized regions instead of historical countries. In 1960 the regions changed leaving only 8 regions. In 2000 14 regions were formed with their own regional self-government.

English name Czech name Administrative seat
Prague, the Capital City Hlavní město Praha Prague
Central Bohemian Region Středočeský kraj Prague
South Bohemian Region Jihočeský kraj České Budějovice
Plzeň Region Plzeňský kraj Plzeň
Karlovy Vary Region Karlovarský kraj Karlovy Vary
Ústí nad Labem Region Ústecký kraj Ústí nad Labem
Liberec Region Liberecký kraj Liberec
Hradec Králové Region Královehradecký kraj Hradec Králové
Pardubice Region Pardubický kraj Pardubice
Olomouc Region Olomoucký kraj Olomouc
Moravian-Silesian Region Moravskoslezský kraj Ostrava
South Moravian Region Jihomoravský kraj Brno
Zlín Region Zlínský kraj Zlín
Vysočina region Kraj Vysočina Jihlava


Religion in the Czech Republic (2011)[10]
Roman Catholicism
Other religions

Czechia has one of the least religious populations in the world. According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% were Roman Catholic, 0.8% were Protestant (0.5% Czech Brethren and 0.4% Hussite), and 9.4% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not (of which 863 people answered they are Pagan). 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion.


  1. "Czech language". Czech Republic – Official website. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  2. Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on a long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic, Belorussian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013, see Česko má nové oficiální národnostní menšiny. Vietnamce a Bělorusy). Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on a long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (Concerning the Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same also applies to members of national minorities in the courts of law.
  3. The Slovak language may be considered an official language in the Czech Republic under certain circumstances, as defined by several laws – e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském ..." (§ 16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) "Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině ..." (§ 3, odstavec 1).
  4. "Czech Republic Population 2014". World Population Review. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  5. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  6. Census of Population and Housing 2011: Basic final results. Czech Statistical Office Archived 29 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 19 December 2012.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Czech Republic". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  8. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  9. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  10. "Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 2012-04-23.

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