clade of sauropsid vertebrates that dominated the Mesozoic Era (including birds)
(Redirected from Dinosauria)

Dinosaurs are a group of Archosaur reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.[1] Dinosaurs eventually gave rise to birds.

Temporal range: Upper TriassicPresent, 233.23 – 0 mya Range includes birds (Aves) (Possible Middle Triassic record)
A collection of fossil dinosaur skeletons. Clockwise from top left: Microraptor gui (a winged theropod), Apatosaurus louisae (a giant sauropod), Edmontosaurus regalis (a duck-billed ornithopod), Triceratops horridus (a horned ceratopsian), Stegosaurus stenops (a plated stegosaur), Pinacosaurus grangeri (an armored ankylosaur)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dracohors
Clade: Dinosauria
Owen, 1842
Major groups

Dinosaurs were the most powerful land animals of the Mesozoic era. Over 500 different genera of dinosaurs are known.[2] Fossils of dinosaurs have been found on every continent.

Dinosaurs began in the Upper Triassic, about 230 million years ago (mya).[3] The earliest date of a dinosaur fossil is that of Eoraptor and Herrerasaurus from Argentina, and Saturnalia from Brazil, 237 to 228 mya.[4]

By the early Jurassic they were the top land vertebrates, and dominated most environments on land. They continued until the K/T extinction event 66 million years ago.[5]

From the fossil record, it is known that birds are living feathered dinosaurs.[6] They evolved from earlier theropods during the later Jurassic.[7] They were the only line of dinosaurs to survive to the present day.[8]

Dinosaurs had adaptations that helped make them successful. The first known dinosaurs were small predators that walked on two legs.[9][10] All their descendants had an upright posture, with the legs underneath the body. This transformed their whole life-style. There were other features. Most of the smaller dinosaurs had feathers, and were probably warm-blooded. This would make them active, with a higher metabolism than modern reptiles. Social interaction, with living in herds and co-operation, seems certain for some types. The existence of communal egg-laying sites is best understood if the adults travelled in herds, as herbivores do today.

The first fossils were recognised as dinosaurs in the early 19th century. Some of their bones were found much earlier, but were not understood. William Buckland, Gideon Mantell and Richard Owen saw these bones were a special group of animals. Georges Cuvier was also important in explaining what dinosaurs were. Dinosaurs are now major attractions at museums around the world. They have become part of popular culture. There have been best-sellng books and movies. New discoveries are reported in the media.

Evolution of dinosaurs

Dinosaur features change

Labeled diagram of a typical archosaur skull, the skull of Dromaeosaurus

Dinosaurs are so varied that it is not easy to find what they all share. A reasonable list would include many features of the skeleton which are not familiar to the general reader.[11]

Dinosaurs were, at the start, small and bipedal: they walked on their hind legs. They laid eggs in nests, and included both carnivores and herbivores. We now know that birds are their living descendents, and more about that later.

Changes in the basic set-up of dinosaurs happened because of adaptations to different lifestyles. From the start of their fossil record, there were both herbivores and carnivores.

Types of dinosaurs change

Dinosaurs are united by at least 21 traits in their skulls and skeletons.[12] These common characters (called 'synapomorphies') are the reason palaeontologists are sure dinosaurs had a common origin.

However, when definite dinosaur fossils appear (early in the Upper Triassic), the group had already split into two great orders, the Saurischia, and the Ornithischia. The Saurischia keep the ancestral hip arrangement inherited from their Archosaur ancestors, and the Ornithischia have a modified hip structure.

A. Eoraptor, an early saurischian, B Lesothosaurus, a primitive ornithischian,
C A saurischian pelvis (Staurikosaurus) D Lesothosaurus pelvis

Dinosaur classification change

The following is a simplified list of dinosaur groups based on their evolution.[8] Groups with a dagger (†) next to them don't have any living members.

  • Dinosauria
The house sparrow is one of the most common living theropods
  • Saurischia ("lizard-hipped"; includes Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha)
Size differences of the largest sauropods compared to a human
  • Diplodocoidea (skulls and tails elongated; teeth typically narrow and pencil-like)
  • Macronaria (boxy skulls; spoon- or pencil-shaped teeth)
  • Brachiosauridae (long-necked, long-armed macronarians)
  • Titanosauria (diverse; stocky, with wide hips; most common in the late Cretaceous of southern continents)
  • Ornithischia ("bird-hipped"; diverse bipedal and quadrupedal herbivores)

Dinosaur origins and evolution change

Archosaurs change

The Archosaurs evolved into two main clades: those related to crocodiles, and those related to dinosaurs.

Earliest dinosaurs change

The early forms Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small) and a Plateosaurus skull

The first known dinosaurs were bipedal predators that were one to two metres long.[9][13]

The earliest confirmed dinosaur fossils include the saurischian ('lizard-hipped') dinosaurs Herrerasaurus 230–220 mya, Staurikosaurus possibly 230–225 mya, Eoraptor 231.4 mya,[14] and Alwalkeria 230–220 mya. Saturnalia, 232–225 mya, may be a basal saurischian or a prosauropod. The others are basal saurischians.

Among the earliest ornithischian ('bird-hipped') dinosaurs is Pisanosaurus 230–220 mya. Although Lesothosaurus comes from 199 to 189 mya, skeletal features suggest that it branched from the main Ornithischia line at least as early as Pisanosaurus.

Early saurischians were similar to early ornithischians, but different from modern crocodiles. Saurischians differ from ornithischians by keeping the ancestral configuration of bones in the pelvis (shown in a diagram above). Another difference is in the skull: the upper skull of the Ornithischia is more solid, and the joint connecting the lower jaw is more flexible. These features are adaptations to herbivory; in other words, it helped them grind vegetable food.

Adaptive radiation change

Dinosaurs were a varied group of animals. Adaptive radiation happened. This let them live in many ecological niches. Paleontologists have identified over 500 different genera and 1,000 species of non-avian dinosaurs.[15] Their descendants, the birds, number 9,000 living species, and are the most diverse group of land vertebrates.

The largest dinosaurs were herbivores (plant-eaters), such as Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus. They were the largest animals to ever walk on dry land. Other plant-eaters, such as Iguanodon, had special weapons to help them fight off the meat-eaters. For example, Triceratops had three horns on its head shield, Ankylosaurus was covered in boney plates, and Stegosaurus had spikes on its tail.

The carnivores were bipedal (walked on their back legs), though not as we do. Their body was more towards the horizontal, balanced at the back by their tail. Some were very large, like Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus and Spinosaurus, but some were small, like Compsognathus. It was the smaller sized meat-eaters that may have evolved into birds. The first fossil bird, Archaeopteryx, had a skeleton which looked much like that of the dinosaur Compsognathus, as T.H. Huxley commented.

Life style change

Locomotion change

Dinosaurs were primitively bipedal: their probable ancestors were small bipedal Archosaurs. The date of the early dinosaur genus Eoraptor at 231.4 million years ago is important. Eoraptor probably resembles the common ancestor of all dinosaurs;[16] its traits suggest that the first dinosaurs were small, bipedal predators.[17] The discovery of primitive, pre-dinosaur,[18] types in Middle Triassic strata supports this view. Analysis of their fossils suggests that the animals were indeed small, bipedal predators.

Hip joints and hindlimb postures

Those dinosaurs which returned to four-legged stance kept all four legs under their body. This is much more efficient than the sprawling legs of a lizard.

The big sauropods could never have reached so large a size without their pillar-like legs. A review surveys what we know about the mechanics of dinosaur movement.[19]

Warm blooded change

A major change in outlook came in the 1960s, when it was realised that small theropods were probably warm-blooded.[20] The question of whether all theropods or even all dinosaurs were warm blooded is still undecided.

It is now certain (from fossils discovered in China: see Jehol biota) that small theropods had feathers. This fits well with the idea that they were warm-blooded, and that the origin of birds can be traced to a line of small theropods.

Activity change

Warm blooded animals have a high metabolic rate (use up food faster). They can be more active, and for longer, than animals who depend on the environment for heating. Therefore, the idea of warm-blooded dinosaurs insulated by feathers led to the idea that they were more active, intelligent and faster runners than previously thought.[20]

Main-stream palaeontologists have followed this view for small theropods, but not for larger herbivores.[21] Since we know that the size of a Stegosaur's brain was about the size of a walnut, there is good reason to think its intelligence was limited.

Limitations change

Despite their great success over a long period, there were life-styles which the dinosaurs never evolved. None ever evolved to live entirely in water, as many mammals do, though Spinosaurus was semi-aquatic. They never entirely dominated the small terrestrial niche. All through the Mesozoic most small vertebrates were mammals and lizards.[22] We have much to learn still about the smaller fauna of the Mesozoic.

Extinction change

Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta. Erosion has exposed the claystone K/T boundary

The extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous were caused by a catastrophic event: a massive meteorite hit the Earth (the Chicxulub impact). We now know where it hit: in the Yucantan peninsula in what is now Mexico.

Several other impact craters, and massive volcanic activity in the Deccan Traps in India, have been dated to about the time of the extinction event. These geological events may have reduced sunlight and hindered photosynthesis, leading to a massive disruption in Earth's ecology.[23]

Did any terrestrial dinosaurs survive the great extinction event? Yes they did, because we now know that birds are descended from dinosaurs. But dinosaurs as generally understood were eliminated. Several fossils have been found in the Hell Creek Formation about 40,000 years later than the K/T extinction event. Many scientists dismiss the "Paleocene dinosaurs" as re-worked, that is, washed out of their original places and then re-buried in much later sediments.[24] An associated skeleton (e.g. more than one bone from the same individual) found above the K/T boundary would be convincing, but no such finds have been reported.

Dinosaurs in fiction change

"...Dragons of the prime,
that tare each other in their slime". Tennyson, In Memoriam,1849.

Books about dinosaurs have been popular, especially with children, but adults have also enjoyed these kinds of books. In Edwardian times, Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a novel about a plateau filled with dinosaurs which he called The Lost World.

Jurassic Park in 1990 started a new phase in dinosaur popular culture.

Novel and film adaptations change

Related pages change

References change

  1. The word 'dinosaur' comes from Greek, meaning 'terrible lizard, ["Dinosaurs - What's in a name?". Children's BBC. 26 October 2001. Retrieved 2009-10-03.] and was coined by English biologist Richard Owen in 1842. ["Richard Owen". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-10-05.]
  2. That is, fossil dinosaurs and not modern birds.
  3. They may have began earlier: Alcobar, Oscar A.; Martinez, Ricardo N. (19 October 2010). "A new herrerasaurid (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of northwestern Argentina". ZooKeys (63): 55–81. doi:10.3897/zookeys.63.550. PMC 3088398. PMID 21594020.
  4. Benton M.J. 2015. Vertebrate palaeontology. 4th ed, Wiley Blackwell, p205.
  5. "Dino Timeline". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
  6. 6.0 6.1 St. Fleur, Nicholas (8 December 2016). "That thing with feathers trapped in amber? It was a dinosaur tail". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. "Sustained miniaturization and anatomical innovation in the dinosaurian ancestors of birds". Science. 345 (6196): 562–566. 1 August 2014. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..562L. doi:10.1126/science.1252243. PMID 25082702. S2CID 37866029. Retrieved August 2, 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite uses deprecated parameter |authors= (help)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2007). Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-82419-7.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Palaeos lists "probably habitually bipedal" among the characteristics of the Dinosauromorpha (that is, early proto-dinosaurs). [1] Archived 2015-03-15 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Moderately large bipedal dinosauromorphs had appeared by 246 mya. Fossil tracks show that the dinosaur lineage appeared soon after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Their age suggests that the rise of dinosaurs was slow and drawn out across much of the Triassic. Brusatte S.L; Niedźwiedzki G. & Butler R.J. 2010 (2011). "Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into early Triassic". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278 (1708): 1107–1113. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1746. PMC 3049033. PMID 20926435.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. Nesbitt, Sterling J. 2011. The early evolution of Archosaurs: relationships and the origin of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 2011 (352): 1–292. doi:10.1206/352.1. hdl:2246/6112. ISSN 0003-0090. S2CID 83493714.
  12. Nesbitt S.J. 2011. The early evolution of archosaurs : relationships and the origin of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 352: 1–292.
  13. Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng and Hutchinson John R. 2013. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs. Nature 497, 104–107. [2]; popular summary [3]
  14. Alcober O.A & Martinez R.N. 2010. A new herrerasaurid (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of northwestern Argentina. Zookeys. 63, 55–81. [4]
  15. Wang S.C. and Dodson P. (2006). "Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 103 (37): 13601–13605. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10313601W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606028103. PMC 1564218. PMID 16954187.
  16. Sereno PC (1999). "The evolution of dinosaurs". Science. 284 (5423): 2137–2147. doi:10.1126/science.284.5423.2137. PMID 10381873.
  17. Sereno, P.C.; Forster, Catherine A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Monetta, Alfredo M. (1993). "Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria". Nature. 361 (6407): 64–66. Bibcode:1993Natur.361...64S. doi:10.1038/361064a0. S2CID 4270484.
  18. A clade of Archosaurs ancestral to all dinosaurs and pterosaurs.
  19. Alexander, R. McNeil 2006. Dinosaur biomechanics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1596): 1849–1855. [5] (full free access)
  20. 20.0 20.1 Bakker, Robert T. 1986. The dinosaur heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. Citadel N.Y.
  21. Benton M.J 2000. Walking with dinosaurs: the facts. BBC, London, Chapter 6.
  22. "Paleos introduction" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
  23. MacLeod N.; et al. (1997). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition". Journal of the Geological Society. 154 (2): 265–292. Bibcode:1997JGSoc.154..265M. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.154.2.0265. S2CID 129654916.
  24. Sullivan, RM (2003). "No Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 35 (5): 15. Archived from the original on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2007-07-02.

Books change

  • Bakker, Robert T. 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04287-2
  • Farlow J.O. and Brett-Surman M.K. (eds) 1997. The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33349-0
  • Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. 2007. Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-82419-7
  • Iggulden, Hal; Iggulden, Conn (2007). "Dinosaurs". The Dangerous Book for Boys. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 30–34. ISBN 978-0061243585.
  • Paul, Gregory S. 2000. The Scientific American book of dinosaurs. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26226-4
  • Weishampel, David B; Dodson, Peter and Osmólska, Halszka (eds) 2004. The Dinosauria. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24209-2
  • National Geographic: Dinosaurs: a new look at the prehistoric icons. Good account of discoveries at American sites.