Dynamical system

mathematical model which describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space

A Dynamical system is a mathematical model of a process, that is dependent on time. The process is homogeneous, it only depends on the initial state. The current terminology was established by Henri Poincaré and George David Birkhoff.

Dynamical systems are very common. Examples are the movement of a pendulum in physics, or the predator-prey equations in biology.