Empress Matilda

Anglo-Norman wife of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor and a claimant to the English throne during the Anarchy (1102–1167)

Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 1102–10 September 1167), sometimes called Empress Maud, was the second child of Henry I of England and Matilda of Scotland. Her brother, William Adelin, died in the wreck of the White Ship in 1120.[1] This made Matilda the hereditary heir to the English throne.[2] At her father's death in 1135, her cousin King Stephen rushed to take the throne.[2] This led to a civil war between Stephen and Matilda, known as the Anarchy.[3]

Matilda of England
Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire; Queen consort of the Romans; later Duchess consort of the Romans
Empress matilda.jpg
Lady of the English (disputed)
ReignApril 1141 - November 1141
PredecessorStephen
SuccessorStephen
Born1102
Died10 September 1167 (aged 65)
Burial
SpouseHenry V, Holy Roman Emperor
m. 1114 dec. 1125
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
m. 1128 dec. 1151
IssueHenry II of England
Geoffrey VI, Count of Anjou
William, Count of Poitou
HouseHouse of Plantagenet
Salian dynasty
House of Normandy
FatherHenry I of England
MotherMatilda of Scotland
Empress Matilda

She was called "empress" because as a child she was married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.[4] She was Queen of England for a short time in 1141. The feud between Matilda and Stephen ended when Matilda's son, Henry, was named by Stephen as his successor. This was at the Treaty of Wallingford in 1153. Stephen's own chosen successor, his son Eustace, died in 1153.

ReferencesEdit

  1. C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 278
  2. 2.0 2.1 Queens and Power in Medieval and Early Modern England, eds. Carole Levin; R. O. Bucholz (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009), p. 1
  3. John M. Riddle, A History of the Middle Ages, 300-1500 (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), p. 297
  4. Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, ed. Margaret Schaus (New York; Oxford: Routledge, 2006), p. 551