|Discovered by||Galileo Galilei|
|Discovery date||8 January 1610|
|Epoch 8 January 2004|
Mean orbit radius
Average orbital speed
|Inclination||0.470° (to Jupiter's equator)|
1.791° (to the ecliptic)
|1560.8±0.5 km (0.245 Earths)|
|3.09×107 km2 (0.061 Earths)[c]|
|Volume||1.593×1010 km3 (0.015 Earths)[d]|
|Mass||(4.799844±0.000013)×1022 kg (0.008 Earths)|
|1.314 m/s2 (0.134 g)[e]|
|Albedo||0.67 ± 0.03|
|0.1 µPa (10−12 bar)|
Europa's diameter is about 3000 kilometers. It probably has an iron core, and an atmosphere that's mostly oxygen. The surface is icy and very smooth. There are not a lot of craters, but there are some cracks and lines.
Scientists believe that there is a liquid ocean under the surface, and that it is kept warm by tidal heating. In other words, Jupiter's strong gravitational pull on Europa makes it warm. Europa certainly has a lot of water.
The moon Europa was found by Simon Marius in December 1609. Galileo Galilei first saw the moon in January 1610 (he did not know Marius had found it). Simon Marius was the one who had the idea of the name 'Europa'.
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- Showman, A. P.; Malhotra, R. (1 October 1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564.
- Bills, Bruce G. (2005). "Free and forced obliquities of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter". Icarus. 175 (1): 233–247. Bibcode:2005Icar..175..233B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.10.028.
- McGrath (2009). "Atmosphere of Europa". In Pappalardo, Robert T.; McKinnon, William B.; Khurana, Krishan K. (eds.). Europa. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2844-8.
- Greenberg, Richard; Europa: The Ocean Moon: Search for an Alien Biosphere, Springer Praxis Books, 2005
- Chang, Kenneth (12 March 2015). "Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
- Periapsis is derived from the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): a(1−e).
- Apoapsis is derived from the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): a(1+e).
- Surface area derived from the radius (r): 4πr 2
- Volume derived from the radius (r): 4/3πr 3
- Surface gravity derived from the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) and the radius (r): Gm/r 2
- Escape velocity derived from the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) and the radius (r):