censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community

Excommunication is a religious act used to take off or suspend membership in a religious community.

The word literally means out of communion, or no longer in communion. In some churches, excommunication includes the belief that the person who was exocommunicated is going to Hell. Sometimes punishment follow excommunication; these include being banned, shunning, and shaming, depending on the group's religion or religious community.

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  • Encyclopedia of American Religions, by J. Gordon Melton ISBN 0-8103-6904-4
  • Ludlow, Daniel H. ed, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Macmillan Publishing, 1992.

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