Falkland Islands

archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, and a British Overseas Territory, disputed by Argentina

The Falkland Islands are a group of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of South America. They are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Argentina disputes this, and claims their sovereignty.

Falkland Islands
Flag of Falkland Islands
Coat of arms of Falkland Islands
Coat of arms
Motto: "Desire the Right"
Anthem: God Save the King  (official)
Song of the Falklands [a]
Location of the Falkland Islands.
Location of the Falkland Islands.
and largest city
51°42′S 57°51′W / 51.700°S 57.850°W / -51.700; -57.850
Official languagesEnglish
Demonym(s)Falkland Islander
GovernmentBritish Overseas Territory[b]
• Monarch
Charles III
• Governor
Nigel Haywood
Andy Keeling
• Responsible Minister (UK)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
• Total
12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi) (162nd)
• Water (%)
• 2012 estimate
2,932[1] (220th)
• Density
0.26/km2 (0.7/sq mi) (241st)
GDP (PPP)2005 estimate
• Total
$75 million (223rd)
• Per capita
$55,400[2] (7th)
CurrencyFalkland Islands pound[d] (FKP)
Time zoneUTC−3 (FKST[e])
Driving sideleft
Calling code500
ISO 3166 codeFK
Internet TLD.fk
  1. ^ Song of the Falklands is used as the islands' anthem at sporting events.
  2. ^ Parliamentary democratic dependency under constitutional monarchy.
  3. ^ Interrupted by Argentine military government in 1982.
  4. ^ Fixed to the Pound sterling (GBP).
  5. ^ The Falklands has been on FKST year-round since September 2010.[3]
Christchurch Cathedral, Stanley

The Falklands War was fought over their possession during Margaret Thatcher's time as British Prime Minister. There are many islands in the group but the two biggest are East Falkland and West Falkland. As of the census of 2016, 3,398 people live on them. The people of the islands are British and speak English. The main income for the people is from fishing and sheep farming.

The Falkland Islands are about 300 miles (480 km) east of Argentina. Argentina and the UK had a short war in 1982 because Argentina claims to own the islands. The war lasted 6 weeks and about 1,000 soldiers were killed. The UK defeated Argentina and after this the governments of the two countries would not negotiate (talk) with each other. In 1990 they began to have talks again, but Argentina later refused to continue talks.

Oil and gas has been found below the sea around the islands. There is also oil and gas outside the sea area that belongs to the UK. This is owned by Argentina.

History change

The islands were discovered and occupied by Europeans. They were not inhabited until 1754, when a French captain landed and founded Port Louie. The British landed in 1766 and created a settlement at Port Egmont on Saunders Island.[5] Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was avoided by Spain giving it back to Britain in 1771.[6]

Later attempts by Spanish forces from the Río de la Plata to seize Falklands were ended in 1833,[7] when British forces took control.[8] In 1840 the Falkland Islands became a Crown Colony of the British Empire.

Modern times change

The Falklands became a British Dependent Territory in 1981. This followed the British Nationality Act 1981. In 1983 the Falkland Islanders were granted British citizenship. On 18 April 1985 the Falkland Islands Constitution Order 1985 came into force which increased the number of elected members of the Legislative Council to eight. It guaranteed the Falkland Islanders' rights and constitutional arrangements.[9] In 1997 the constitution was amended with regard to voters rights. In 2002 the Falklands became a British Overseas Territory with the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. On 1 January 2009 the current constitution came into force with the Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008. This replaced the 1985 version. It was agreed on by the UK Government and the Falkland Islands Government. The new constitution provided for finance, the public service, the administration of justice, and a Complaints Commissioner.[10]

Geography change

Map of the Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands have a land area of 4,700 sq mi (12,000 km2) and a coastline estimated at 800 mi (1,300 km).[11] The archipelago is made of two main islands, West Falkland and East Falkland. It also has 776 smaller islands.[12] The islands are mostly full of mountains and hills,[13] with the main exception being the plains of Lafonia.[14] The Falklands is made of continental crust pieces made from the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are in the South Atlantic Ocean, on the Patagonian Shelf. They are about 300 mi (480 km) east of Patagonia in southern Argentina.[15]

The archipelago's two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound,[16] and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbours.[17] East Falkland has the capital, Stanley[18] and the archipelago's highest point, Mount Usborne, at 2,313 ft (705 m).[16]

The climate of the islands is cold, windy, and humid.[15] There is a lot of rain over half of the year, with an average of 610 mm (24 in) in Stanley. There is occasional light snowfall nearly all year.[13] Strong westerly winds and cloudy skies are common.[13]

Culture change

Gauchos from mainland South America, such as these two men having mate at Hope Place in East Falkland, influenced the local dialect.

Falklands culture is based on the cultural traditions of its British settlers but has also been influenced by Hispanic South America.[19] Falklanders still use some terms and place names from the former Gaucho inhabitants.[20] The Falklands' official and most common language is English, with the most common dialect being British English. Some inhabitants also speak Spanish.[19]

The islands have one weekly newspaper, The Penguin News.[21] The television and radio broadcasts mostly have programming from the United Kingdom.[19]

References change

  1. "Falkland Islands Census 2012: Headline results" (PDF). Falkland Islands Government. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  2. 2002 estimate. "CIA World Factbook 2012". cia.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  3. "Falkland Islands will remain on summer time throughout 2011". MercoPress. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  4. Joshua Project. "Ethnic People Groups of Falkland Islands". Joshua Project. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  5. Toward Resolution?: The Falklands/Malvinas Dispute, ed. Wayne S Smith (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991), p. 48
  6. Gibran, Daniel 1998. The Falklands War: Britain versus the past in the South Atlantic. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0406-3
  7. At this time, Argentina did not exist.
  8. Graham-Yooll, Andrew 2002. Imperial skirmishes: war and gunboat diplomacy in Latin America. Oxford, England: Signal Books. ISBN 978-1-902669-21-2
  9. Laver, Roberto (February 2001). The Falklands/Malvinas Case: Breaking the Deadlock in the Anglo-Argentine Sovereignty Dispute. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9789041115348. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  10. "New Falklands constitution agreed". BBC News. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  11. See:
  12. Sainato 2010, p. 157.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Central Intelligence Agency 2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Geography".
  14. Trewby 2002, p. 79.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Klügel 2009, p. 66.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Hemmerle 2005, p. 318.
  17. See:
  18. Guo 2007, p. 112.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Minahan 2013, p. 139.
  20. Wagstaff 2001, p. 21.
  21. Wagstaff 2001, p. 66.

Other websites change