Western Roman Empire

independently administered western provinces of the Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire was the western half of the Roman Empire, which was divided by Diocletian in 286 AD. The other half of the Roman Empire became known as the Eastern Roman Empire.

Western Roman Empire
Flag of Western Roman Empire
Labarum of
Constantine the Great
The Western Roman Empire in 418 AD, following the abandonment of Britannia and the settlement of the Visigoths, Burgundians, and Suebi within imperial territory as foederati
The Western Roman Empire in 418 AD, following the abandonment of Britannia and the settlement of the Visigoths, Burgundians, and Suebi within imperial territory as foederati
StatusWestern division of the Roman Empire
(402–455, 473–476)
Common languagesLatin (official)
Regional / local languages
Polytheistic Roman Religion until 4th century
Nicene Christianity (state church) after 380
Notable emperors 
• 395–423
• 457–461
• 474–480
Julius Nepos
• 475–476
Romulus Augustulus
LegislatureRoman Senate
Historical eraLate antiquity
• Death of Emperor Theodosius I
17 January 395
• Deposition of Emperor Romulus Augustulus
4 September 476
• Murder of Emperor Julius Nepos
25 April 480
395[1]2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)
CurrencyRoman currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of the Visigoths
Kingdom of the Vandals
Kingdom of the Franks
Kingdom of the Suebi
Kingdom of the Burgundians
Kingdom of the Romans
Kingdom of the Moors and Romans
Sub-Roman Britain
  1. ^ Since the Western Roman Empire was not a distinct state separate from the Eastern Roman Empire, there was no particular official term that designated the Western provinces or their government, which was simply known at the time as the "Roman Empire". Terms such as Imperium Romanum Occidentalis and Hesperium Imperium were never in official usage or were invented by later medieval or modern historians long after the Western Roman court had fallen. In the ancient era, the Latin term that was often used was "S.P.Q.R." ("Senatus Populusque Romanus" ["Senate and People of Rome"] Latin) in documents, on flags and banners and carved/engraved on buildings
  2. ^ The deposition of Emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476 is the most commonly-cited end for the Western Roman Empire, but the last Western Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos, was assassinated in 480, when the title and notion of a separate Western Roman Empire were abolished. Another suggested end date is the reorganisation of the Italian Peninsula and the abolition of separate Western Roman administrative institutions under Emperor Justinian during the latter half of the 6th century.
  3. ^ The Theodosian dynasty Emperors Honorius and Valentinian III reigned from Ravenna. In the period between Valentinian and Glycerius, who once again reigned from northern Italy, most emperors appear to have reigned from Rome. Both Emperors Petronius Maximus and Anthemius reigned from and died in Rome.
  4. ^ The de jure last emperor, Julius Nepos, reigned for five years in exile from Spalatum in Dalamatia.

The Roman Empire had been in difficulties since 190 AD, when large Gothic tribes began moving into areas under Roman control. The Empire had weak leadership, which caused instability. Various power groups in the Roman armies kept trying to install their own emperors and killed those who belonged to other groups. That helped the invasions by the Germanic tribes.

Ending Rome's crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian tried to bring back stable government by dividing the empire into sections. The Western Empire included Iberia, France, southern Britain, Italy, North Africa and parts of Germany. The Eastern Empire included the Balkans, Turkey, the Levant and Egypt.

Rome ceased to be the capital from the time of the division. In 286, the capital of the Western Roman Empire became Mediolanum (now Milan). In 402, the capital was again moved, this time to Ravenna.

Animated map of the Roman Republic and Empire
Animated map of the Roman Republic and Empire between 510 BC and 530 AD
  Eastern/Byzantine Empire
  Western Empire

The division did not help the Western Empire, which came under increasing invasions from the north: the Ostrogoths, Huns, Franks, Visigoths and Burgundians. Its armies were brought back towards Rome and abandoned Britain and France. The Empire's economy could not cope since the increased need for military spending caused inflation. Citizens were unhappy with the rising taxes and rising prices.

In AD 398, Alaric led the Visigoths and began making attacks closer and closer to the capital. By 410, he had sacked Rome. In 455, the Vandals captured the city. In 476, the Goths captured the city.

The fall of the Western Roman Empire took place in 476 AD, when the leader of the Goths, Odoacer, removed Emperor Romulus Augustus. Odoacer became King of Italy, and the Western Roman Empire ended. By then, however, the empire had existed in name only, and the Emperor no longer had military, financial or political power.

Related pages change

References change

  1. Taagepera, p. 24.

Other websites change