Ferdinand III of Castile

13th-century king of Castile, Leon and Galicia

Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando III; 5 August 1199 — 30 May 1252) also known as Saint Ferdinand (Spanish: San Fernando) and nicknamed the Saint (Spanish: el Santo) was the King of León and Galicia from 1230 until his death in 1252. He was also the King of Castile and Toledo from 1217 to 1252. He successfully united Castile with León during his reign.

Ferdinand III
An artist's depiction of Ferdinand
King of León and Galicia
Reign24 September 1230 — 30 May 1252
Coronation28 September 1230
PredecessorAlfonso IX
SuccessorAlfonso X
King of Castile and Toledo
Reign31 August 1217 — 30 May 1252
Coronation6 October 1217
SuccessorAlfonso X
Born(1199-08-05)5 August 1199
Monastery of Valparaíso, Peleas de Arriba, Kingdom of León
Died30 May 1252(1252-05-30) (aged 52)
Burial1 June 1252
FatherAlfonso IX of León
MotherBerengaria of Castile
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Saint Ferdinand III of Castile
Portrait of Ferdinand as a Saint
Saint, Defender of the Faith, King
Venerated inCatholic Church and Catholic Church in Spain
Canonized4 February 1671, Rome by Pope Clement X
Major shrineSeville Cathedral, Seville
Feast30 May
PatronageSeville, Aranjuez, San Fernando de Henares, Maspalomas, Pivijay, Monarchy of Spain, Spain

By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand greatly expanded the dominions of Castile by conquering the crown of Guadalquivir river valley in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. New territories included important cities such as Baeza, Úbeda, Jaén, Córdoba and Seville, that were subject of Repartimiento, given a new general charter and repopulated in the following years. Ferdinand died in 1252 at the age of 53 due to a dropsy. He was succeeded by his son, Alfonso X.

Ferdinand had a great reputation. He was one of Castile's most successful monarchs. Because he was a very religious person, he was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. Places such as the cities of San Fernando, Pampanga and San Fernando, La Union; the Diocese of Ilagan and the San Fernando de Dilao Church in Paco, Manila in the Philippines; and in the United States, in California the City of San Fernando, the San Fernando Valley, and in Texas the Cathedral of San Fernando in San Antonio were named in his honor.

References change