Ferdinand I of Bulgaria
He was born in Vienna as Ferdinand Maximilan Charles Leopold Marie, Duke of Saxony, later becoming Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the son of Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary (1818–1881) and his wife née Clémentine of Orléans (1817–1907). He was proclaimed prince regnant of Bulgaria on 25 June 1887 (O.S.)/7 July 1887 (N.S.).
On 20 April 1893 at the Villa Pianore in Luccia in Italy, he married Maria Luisa Pia Teresa Anna Ferdinanda Francesca Antonietta Margherita Giuseppina Carolina Bianca Lucia Appollonia, Princess of Bourbon-Parma, daughter of Roberto I of Parma. He was also thought to be bisexual, even after marrying his first wife.
They had four children, Boris III (1894–1943), Kyril (1895–1945), Eudoxia (1898–1985), Nadejda (1899–1958) and Maria Luisa died in 1899. On 28 February 1908 in Coburg Ferdinand married his second wife, Eleonore Caroline Gasparine Louise, Princess Reuss-Köstritz (1860-1917), daughter of Heinrich IV Reuss von Köstritz (1821–1894) and née Luise Caroline Reuss zu Greiz (1822–1875).
He died in Burglassschloßen in Coburg, and is buried in St. Augustin's Catholic Church.
- Aronson, Theo (1986). Crowns in Conflict: The Triumph and The Tragedy of European Monarchy, 1910–1918. London: J. Murray. ISBN 0719542790.
- Böttcher, Hans-Joachim: Ferdinand von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1861 - 1948 - Ein Kosmopolit auf dem bulgarischen Thron. Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-89998-296-1.
- Finestone, Jeffrey (1981). The Last Courts of Europe. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0460045199.
- Louda, Jiri; Michael Maclagan (1981). Lines of Succession. London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0856132764.
- Constant, Stephen (1986). Foxy Ferdinand, 1861–1948, Tsar of Bulgaria. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0-283-98515-1.
- Palmer, Alan (1978). The Kaiser: Warlord of The Second Reich. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297773933.
- Media related to Ferdinand I of Bulgaria at Wikimedia Commons
- Historical photographs of the royal palace in Sofia
| Prince of Bulgaria
7 July 1887 – 5 October 1908
from Ottoman Empire
|| Tsar of Bulgaria
5 October 1908 – 3 October 1918