In America, the subject of Anthropology has been divided up into four smaller subjects. This is call the "four-field approach". The four types of anthropology included are archaeology, linguistics, physical anthropology, and cultural anthropology.  Together, these four types of anthropology explain how different humans are all over the world and throughout history.
There are some people who think applied anthropology, which uses the information learned from studying anthropology to solve modern problems of health or education, it's own subject, which would make it a "five field approach", but this is not as common.
Most students who study anthropology learn about all four big kinds of anthropology but later focus on only two of the subjects.
History of The Four-Field ApproachEdit
This approach was created by Franz Boas (1858-1942), also named “the father of anthropology.” He is famous for making anthropology popular in the United States. Boas wanted to show people that human activities, ideas, and choices are different in different places. He believed that the people should be studied holistically, not just looking at one part of their life, but how all the parts or their life fit together and create their culture. This includes studying people's history, the objects they make, their bodies, languages, stories, and customs.
Since the 20th century, most American universities have used the four field approach. Other countries, like England, do not divide anthropology in the same way. For example, archaeology is a part of the subject of history and not anthropology.
The Four FieldsEdit
Archaeology is the study of how people lived in the past. Archaeologists, people who study archaeology, learn from things left by people who lived a long time ago. They examine very old objects like pottery, stone tools, coins, books or anything made or used by humans. Usually, these objects are buried in the ground and need to be excavated, or taken out. These objects help archaeologists understand where and how people lived a long time ago.
Cultural anthropology is the study of human culture. Culture is the way groups of people live their lives based on what is normal for where they live. Cultures change as people’s ideas change. Cultural anthropologists look at how different cultures are by comparing things like people’s ideas, art, and food.
Unlike archaeologists who study people of the past, cultural anthropologist mostly study people alive today.
It is also called "social anthropology".
Famous sociocultural anthropologistsEdit
Linguistics is the study of how people speak and the words they use and how their language developed (evolved). Linguists, people who study linguistics, also examine how language changes what people think and how people change language. They also look at how words make sentences.
Physical anthropology is the study of human body science (biology), including how people adapt to where they live and how bodies changed over time (evolution). They do this by comparing bones from very old humans to the bones of humans today.
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