François Duvalier (14 April 1907 - 21 April 1971), known as "Papa Doc" because he was once a doctor, was the President (dictator) and Head of State of Haiti from 1957 until his death. He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church for expelling foreign-born bishops.
Duvalier in 1968
|32nd President of Haiti|
22 October 1957 – 21 April 1971
|Preceded by||Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau (Chairman of the Military Council)|
|Succeeded by||Jean-Claude Duvalier|
|Minister of Public Health and Labor|
14 October 1949 – 10 May 1950
|Preceded by||Antonio Vieux (Public Health)|
Louis Bazin (Labor)
|Succeeded by||Joseph Loubeau (Public Health)|
Emile Saint-Lot (Labor)
|Undersecretary of Labor|
26 November 1948 – 14 October 1949
|Born||14 April 1907|
|Died||21 April 1971 (aged 64)|
|Political party||National Unity Party|
Simone Duvalier (m. 1939)
|Children||Marie‑Denise Duvalier |
|Alma mater||University of Haiti (MD)|
He was born and died at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He died of diabetes and heart disease.
- Fatton, Robert, Jr. (2013). "Michel-Rolph Trouillot's State Against Nation: A Critique of the Totalitarian Paradigm". Small Axe. 17 (3 , 42): 208. doi:10.1215/07990537-2379009. ISSN 1534-6714.
In 1963, Duvalier created the Parti de l'unité nationale—PUN (National Unity Party)—to constitute a single-party system. . . . the existence of a single party as one of the defining characteristics of the totalitarian nature of Duvalierism . . . the party had a thoroughly inconsequential role in the Duvalierist system.
- Lacey, Marc (23 March 2008). "Haiti's Poverty Stirs Nostalgia for Old Ghosts". New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015.
- "François Duvalier Biography". notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.