François Duvalier (14 April 1907 - 21 April 1971), known as "Papa Doc" because he was once a doctor, was the President (dictator) and Head of State of Haiti from 1957 until his death. He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church for expelling foreign-born bishops. He was born and died at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He died of diabetes and heart disease. Like many rulers of Haiti, he was called "President for Life". His widow was Simone Duvalier. When he died their son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, called "Baby Doc", became President.
- "François Duvalier Biography". notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.