- The net electric flux through any closed surface is equal to 1⁄ε times the net electric charge enclosed within that closed surface.
The law was created by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1835. However, it was not published until 1867. It is one of the four Maxwell's equations on classical electrodynamics. The other three are Gauss's law for magnetism, Faraday's law of induction, and Ampère's circuital law.
- A closed surface is one which is limited, but has no boundary. A sphere, for example.
- Serway, Raymond A. (1996). Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 4th edition. p. 687.
- MIT Video Lecture Series (30 x 50 minute lectures)- Electricity and Magnetism Taught by Professor Walter Lewin.
- section on Gauss's law in an online textbook
- MISN-0-132 Gauss's Law for Spherical Symmetry (PDF file) by Peter Signell for Project PHYSNET.
- MISN-0-133 Gauss's Law Applied to Cylindrical and Planar Charge Distributions (PDF file) by Peter Signell for Project PHYSNET.