The Guangzhou Metro (simplified Chinese: 广州地铁; traditional Chinese: 廣州地鐵; pinyin: Guǎngzhōu Dìtiě; Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹ Dei⁶tit³) is the metro system of Guangzhou, Guangdong in China. It is operated by the Guangzhou Metro Corporation. It was the fourth metro system that was built in mainland China. The Guangzhou Metro was planned many times. The planning of the metro began in the 1980s and in 1993 the construction of the first line began. In 1997 the metro opened. The first line was Line 1.
|Owner||City of Guangzhou|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||13|
|Number of stations||232|
|Daily ridership||7.678 million (2017 Avg.) |
10.0257 million (31 December 2017 Peak)
|Began operation||28 June 1997|
|Operator(s)||Guangzhou Metro Corporation|
|Number of vehicles||444 trains (as of 2017[update])|
|System length||391.8 km (243.5 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius of curvature||206 m (676 ft)|
|Cantonese Yale||Gwóngjàu Dèihtít|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Guǎngzhōu Dìtiě|
The metro system has 13 lines. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 13, Line 14, Guangfo Line, and the Zhujiang New Town APM. All of these lines connect the urban core and the suburbs. The Guangfo Line connects Guangzhou and Foshan. Over seven million people ride the metro everyday and it was used 2.56 billion times. This makes the metro the fourth busiest metro in the world.
First ideas and planningEdit
Chen Yu, who was the Governor of Guangdong from 1957 to 1967, first had an idea for a metro system in Guangzhou. In 1960 he had the groundwater levels of Guangzhou checked. In 1965 Chen Yu and Tao Zhu put out the idea to build a tunnel in Guangzhou for evacuations during war or for creating a metro. The project was called "Project Nine".
The metro system was supposed to have two lines. Chen Yu planned for a north-south line and an east-west line. The plans for these lines are very similar to Line 1 and Line 2. The east-west line was never built. The north-south line was supposed to be built by Project Nine. There wasn't enough time, money, or materials so instead of having a subway, they planned to use trolleybuses. The tunnel was finished in 1966 but it could not be used. This was because there was an unsafe section of the tunnel. There were many attempts to restart Project Nine in the 1970s, but none of these attempts restarted Project Nine.
Construction of Line 1Edit
The metro project was started as the Preparation Office of Guangzhou Metro. It was created in 1979 to try and restart Project Nine. The project was going to help reduce the traffic in Guangzhou. Before the 1980s, most underground projects in China were to prepare for war. This was the first time that something like the Guangzhou Metro was focused on traffic. China and France worked together to design the metro. Four designs were released in the Guangzhou Daily on 14 March 1988. One of the designs were chosen after getting feedback from other people. It showed a design that would become Line 1 and Line 2.
The construction of Line 1 officially began on 28 December 1992. Before that, in October 1992, workers began on a trial part of the line. Many construction techniques were used when building the metro. They were new to China and included immersed tubes and tunnel boring machines. Line 1 needed ¥12.75 billion to be built and the city government of Guangzhou raised all the money. The mayor at the time, Li Ziliu wanted to use cut-and-cover tunnels. This meant that almost 100,000 people had to leave their homes and almost 1.1 km2 (0.42 sq mi) of buildings had to be destroyed.
On 28 June 1997 the 5.4 km (3.4 mi) section of Line 1 opened for a trial. The 13 km (8.1 mi) part that was not opened was finished on 28 December 1998. The whole line was opened for sightseeing between 16 February and 2 March 1999. Line 1 was officially opened on 28 June 1999.
- "广州地铁年报第5章线路运营" [Guangzhou Metro Annual Report 2017 Part 5 Operation of Network of Guangzhou Metro] (PDF) (in Chinese and English). Guangzhou Metro. 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "1002.57万！广州地铁客流首破千万" [1002.57万！广州地铁客流首破千万] (in Chinese). 广州地铁. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "广州地铁二〇一七年度年报第二章公司概况" [Guangzhou Metro Annual Report 2017 Part 2 Overview of the company] (PDF) (in Chinese and English). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "12月28日,广州地铁四条新线同步开通！" (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "广州地铁五号线月底开通" [Guangzhou Metro Line 5 to open at end of month]. Nanfang Daily (in Chinese). 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "城际轨道直通穗莞深惠 广佛地铁设九座换乘站" [Intercity railways to connect Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenzhen, Huizhou; Guangfo Metro to have nine interchange stations] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "六号线二期正式开建" [Construction of Phase 2 of Line 6 formally starts]. Information Times (in Chinese). 21 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- "Guangzhou Metro Line 7". Shared Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "广州地铁发展历程" [Development of Guangzhou Metro] (in Chinese). NetEase. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "广州地铁 全程为你--公司新闻". gzmtr.com. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "广州地铁上半年运客超13亿人次" [Guangzhou Metro First Half of 2017 Provided 1.3 billion rides.] (in Chinese). Sina Corp. 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "首尾班车时刻表" [Schedules of first and last trains] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- Yu Dingyu (2006). Nanfengchuang Magazine (ed.). 与龙共舞：广州地铁深度报道 [Dancing with the Dragon: An In-Depth Report of Guangzhou Metro] (in Chinese). Huacheng Press. ISBN 7-5360-4829-7. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- "广州地铁一号线今告建成" [Guangzhou Metro Line 1 completed today]. Nanfang Daily (in Chinese). 28 December 1998. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- 广州地铁今起封闭调试6月28日正式营运 [Guangzhou Metro closed for testing today, to start operation on 28 June]. Guangzhou Daily (in Chinese). 3 March 1999. Retrieved 4 December 2010.