Hui people

Ethnic group in China

The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; pinyin: Huízú) are one of the 56 recognized ethnic groups in China. Even though they are ethnically related to the Han Chinese (being from the Central Plains) they are considered distinct from them because the majority practice Islam, unlike most of the Han Chinese. They are called the Hui (which translates into "return" in Chinese) because the Chinese recognize that one of the Five Pillars of Faith in Islam is the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. A traditional name for Islam in Chinese is Huíjiào (回教) for the same reason.

The Hui are the third largest ethnic group in and the largest Muslim-majority ethnic group in China with about 9.8 million people. The region with the largest number of Hui is Ningxia, China's Hui autonomous region. However, there are also many Hui living in Gansu, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Hebei, Henan, Yunnan, and Shandong.

Despite using some Arabic and Persian words in religious activities, Chinese is the first language of most Hui.[1] As a matter of fact, there are many Hui who know no Arabic other than words in everyday Islamic vocabulary.

Since the Hui follow the halal diet, the diet Muslims are commanded to eat, Hui food is made largely of wheat, beef, and mutton, which is different from other kinds of Chinese food since they more often use rice and pork. A Hui dish famous throughout China is Lanzhou niurou lamian, or Lanzhou beef pulled noodles, which has around 100,000 restaurants in China.[2]

Hui who live in regions of the former Soviet Union and Xinjiang are called Dungan by Russians and Turkic-speaking people, but the Hui do not call themselves that name.[3]

Hui General Ma Anliang abandoned the Qing cause upon the Qing abdication in the Xinhai Revolution while the Manchu governor general Shengyun was enraged at the revolution.[4][5]

Pro-revolution Hui Muslims like Shaanxi Governor Ma Yugui and Beijing Imam Wang Kuan persuaded Qing Hui general Ma Anliang to stop fighting, telling him as Muslims not to kill each other for the sake of the Qing monarchists and side with the republican revolutionaries instead. Ma Anliang then agreed to abandon the Qing under the combination of Yuan Shikai's actions and these messages from other Hui.[6] [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

The Kazakhs were plundering and robbing on the Tibetan-Kokonor plateau in Qinghai as they came through Gansu and northern Xinjiang. There were over 7,000 of them between 1938-1941. On the Kokonor plateau, Hui (Tungans), Tibetans and Kazakhs continued to battle each other despite the Kazakh nomads being settled in demarcated pasturelands under Ma Bufang's watch in 1941.[18] Japanese spy Hisao Kimura was told by a Tibetan Lama in Qinghai that Kazakhs were enemies of Tibetans, saying "This land, is very unsettled compared with Inner Mongolia. To the west the Kazakhs persecute our people, and we are powerless to stop them. Therefore I advise you to leave for your native land as soon as you have finished whatever you came to do: otherwise leave for Tibet. In that holy land there is peace."[19] The Kazakhs who migrated to Iran and Pakistan via India and Tibet later in the 1950s moved to Turkey and some of these Kazakhs in turkey ended up in the 1960s as guest workers in Germany.[20]

Over the space of 2 years of battles, 5,000 Kazakhs were killed by Hui Muslim Chinese and Tibetans in Gansu. There were 13,000 Kazakhs who survived out of 18,000 before the battles. They fled to India on September 1940. Tibetan cavalry numbering 1,000 attacked and fought the Kazakhs for 3 days to block their path but lost and the Kazakhs made it to the British Indian border. Many Kazakhs died when the British ordered Indian guards to shoot. When they found out they were civilians the 3,039 surviving Kazakhs were then let into India via Chuchul checkpoint on September 1941. In 3 years, 15,000 Kazakhs were killed. Eliskhan Batur Elifuglu (1919-1943) was their leader. The Kazakhs were expelled to the outskirts of Muzaffar Abad city in an open camp near the mountains by the Hindu Kashmir Majaraja Herisin who didn't want them there. 10-15 Kazakhs died daily from illness due to heavy Monsson rains over their tents. Their livestock died and Indian soldiers blocked them from leaving the camp. When Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah heard about their plight he elped them, arranging them to go to Gari Habibullah in April 1942 and then Indian Muslims hosted them in Ternova village. Illness and poor died as well as India's warm climate killed many Kazakhs. Kazakhs got residence permits to leave camp after Eliskhan appealed to Governor general Viceroy Sir Lord Halifax when he visited them in 1941. The news about the Kazakh situation appeared in newspapers so they received help from the Muslim Nawabs Hamidullah Khan of Bhohal and Osman Ali Khan of Hyderabad. 450 Kazakhs moved to the colder Bhohal province. Chatyral, Suvat and Abutabad received 700 Kazakhs. Then Delhi, Calcutta and Lahore received the Bhopal Kazakhs in 1944. Pakistan then received the majority of the Kazakhs after partition on 14 August 1947.[21]

The Kazakhs accused Tibetans and Tungans (Hui Muslims) of attacking them in Gansu, Qinghai and Tibet when they reached British India and were debriefed by British officials.[22][23]

The Kazakhs said they were fleeing from the Soviets and from the Soviet backed warlord Sheng Shicai in Xinjiang and said when they entered Qinghai and Gansu they originally numbered 18,000. These Kazakhs accused Tibetan raiders of killing their Kenzhebay, a relative of their leader Elisqan, and accused the Hui Muslim ruled Qinghai government of ignoring their complaint about the Tibetans murdering him so they decided to move in 1940 out of Qinghai towards India and Tibet and stopped at Altïnšöke on the way for pasture. The Kazakhs accused Tibet people called Qulïq of being warlike and attacking the Kazakhs and claimed that Elisqan and his Kazakhs defeated them. One of them shot a Kazakh named Omar. The Kazakhs then accused a Hui Muslim (Dungan) called Fulušan of leading an assault with Mongol and Tibetan troops against the Kazakhs in Altïnšöke (Алтыншёке).[24][25][26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. "The Chinese Hui Ethnic Minority, Hui Ethnic Group in China". China Highlights. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  2. "Fremont's Shinry Lamian serves Lanzhou noodles made by a master noodle-puller - SFChronicle.com". www.sfchronicle.com. 2018-08-10. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  3. "Dungan people explained". everything.explained.today. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  4. Lipman, Jonathan N. (2011). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Studies on Ethnic Groups in China. University of Washington Press. p. 170. ISBN 0295800550. Ma Anliang attacked Shaanxi successfully, and Yuan Shikai took the invasion seriously enough to alert eastern troops to move against him.
  5. Shan, Patrick Fuliang (2018). Yuan Shikai: A Reappraisal. Contemporary Chinese Studies. UBC Press. p. 201. ISBN 0774837810. On his order, Wang was executed.66 According to Yuan Shikai, the most important ... to arrest bad elements and protect the people (chubao'anliang), ...
  6. Israeli, Raphael (2017). The Muslim Midwest in Modern China: The Tale of the Hui Communities in Gansu (Lanzhou, Linxia, and Lintan) and in Yunnan (Kunming and Dali). Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 71, 72. ISBN 1532637543. Archived from the original on 2021. This message by Wang may have contributed to breaking the resistance of Ma Anliang, who had in any case, come under strong pressure of Yuan Shikai's ...
  7. Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1980). The Border World of Gansu, 1895-1935. Stanford University. p. 208, 105, 209. ... White Wolf and the " Hui protector and mediator , " Ma Anliang . When Yuan Shikai died in 1916 , Zhang Guangjian's control over Gansu did not decrease .
  8. Frankel, James (2021). Islam in China. Islam in Series. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 0755638840. Archived from the original on 2021. ... thereupon supporting Yuan Shikai even when he declared himself emperor. Despite their close relationship, when his superior Ma Anliang tried to arrest ...
  9. Mühlhahn, Klaus (2014). Herrschaft und Widerstand in der "Musterkolonie" Kiautschou: Interaktionen zwischen China und Deutschland, 1897-1914. Volume 8 of Studien zur Internationalen Geschichte (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 399. ISBN 3486713698. tierte Yuan Shikai in bezug auf die Boxerbewegung, daß „Irrlehren (yaoyan) ... Revolte Ruhe und Frieden eintreten können” (chu bao nai ke anliang gaoshi). |volume= has extra text (help)
  10. Source Wikipedia (2013). Warlords in Republican China: Republic of China Warlords from Anhui, Republic of China Warlords from Fujian, Republic of China Warlords from Gansu, Re. University-Press Org. ISBN 1230512357.
  11. Mueggler, Erik (2011). The Paper Road: Archive and Experience in the Botanical Exploration of West China and Tibet. A Philip e Lilienthal Book in Asian Studies ACLS Humanities E-Book (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 228. ISBN 0520269020. When that army's commander, Dong Fuxiang died in 1908, Ma Anliang took control ... To curb the power of these warlords, Yuan Shikai sent his subordinates to ... line feed character in |series= at position 44 (help)
  12. Jowett, Philip (2013). China’s Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949 (illustrated ed.). Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 1472806743. Archived from the original on 2021. During the Second Revolution in 1913 he was persuaded by the southern Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen to join the anti-Yuan Shikai rebellion.
  13. Hamrin, Carol Lee (2009). Hamrin, Carol Lee; Bieler, Stacey (eds.). Salt and Light, Volume 1: Lives of Faith That Shaped Modern China. Studies in Chinese Christianity. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 1621892913. Yuan Shikai, later to become the first President of the Republic of China, was in charge of foreign affairs (and much else) for this last decade of the ...
  14. Shan, Patrick Fuliang (2018). Yuan Shikai: A Reappraisal. Contemporary Chinese Studies. UBC Press. p. 201. ISBN 0774837810. On his order, Wang was executed.66 According to Yuan Shikai, the most important ... to arrest bad elements and protect the people (chubao'anliang), ...
  15. Israeli, Raphael (2017). The Muslim Midwest in Modern China: The Tale of the Hui Communities in Gansu (Lanzhou, Linxia, and Lintan) and in Yunnan (Kunming and Dali). Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 1532637543. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). This message by Wang may have contributed to breaking the resistance of Ma Anliang, who had in any case, come under strong pressure of Yuan Shikai's ...
  16. Dillon, Michael (2013). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 1136809333. Archived from the original on 2021. ... poor' and 'Down with Yuan Shikai,' the first president of the new Chinese ... Ma Anliang sent his subordinate Ma Qi to the old town of Taozhou on April ...
  17. Sahay, Dr R K (2016). History of China's Military. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9386019906. ... commanders such as Zeng Guofan, Zuo Zongtang, Li Hongzhang and Yuan Shikai. ... Ma Anliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fuxing who commanded the Kansu Braves. Unknown parameter |pedition= ignored (help)
  18. Lin, Hsaio-ting (2011). [The Kazakhs were plundering and robbing on the Tibetan-Kokonor plateau in Qinghai as they came through Gansu and northern Xinjiang. There were over 7,000 of them between 1938-1941. On the Kokonor plateau, Hui (Tungans), Tibetans and Kazakhs continued to battle each other despite the Kazkah nomads being settled in demarcated pasturelands under Ma Bufang's watch in 1941. Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49] Check |archive-url= value (help). Contemporary Chinese Studies Series. UBC Press. ISBN 0774859881. Archived from the original on August 1 2021. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  19. Kimura, Hisao; Berry, Scott (1990). Berry, Scott (ed.). Japanese Agent in Tibet: My Ten Years of Travel in Disguise. Contributor Scott Berry (illustrated ed.). Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 58. ISBN 0906026245. horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  20. Sheryazdanova, Kamilla (2013). "Chapter 8 The Role and Place of Migration and Diaspora's Policy in Bilateral Relations Between Kazakhstan and Germany". In Banerjee, Santo; Erçetin, Şefika Şule (eds.). Chaos, Complexity and Leadership 2012. Springer Proceedings in Complexity (illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 50, 51. ISBN 9400773625. Archived from the original on August 3 2021. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  21. DEVLET, PROF. DR. NADİR (2004). "STUDIES IN THE POLITICS, HISTORY AND CULTURE OF TURKIC PEOPLES". Istanbul: Yeditepe University: 191, 192. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ZINDIE. I. (JUNE 1948). "THE WANDERERS.". Blackwood's Magazine, Volume 236. VOL. 263. pp. 401–409. |volume= has extra text (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. East Asian History, Issues 19-22. Contributor Australian National University. Institute of Advanced Studies. Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University. 2000. p. 82. horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. Benson, Linda (1988). Benson, Linda; Svanberg, Ingvar (eds.). The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Volume 5 of Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis: Studia multiethnica Upsaliensia. Contributors Linda Benson, Ingvar Svanberg (illustrated ed.). Ubsaliensis S. Academiae. p. 193, 195. ISBN 9155422551. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help); |volume= has extra text (help)
  25. Казахи Китая: очерки по этническому меньшинству. Volume 3 of История Казахстана в западных источниках XII-XX в.в. Linda Benson, Ingvar Svanberg. Санат. 2005. p. 180. ISBN 9965664331. ... разгневанный Елисхан переселился подальше от Цинхая и разместился в местности , именуемой Алтыншёке ( Altinsoke ) , расположенной за пределами Цинхая ... |volume= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  26. https://twitter.com/mediyafiltr/status/1409769099702554625