McMahon–Hussein Correspondence

10 letters exchanged between the British High Commissioner to Egypt and the Sharif of Mecca in 1915-6

The McMahon–Hussein correspondance was a correspondance of 10 letters during 1915 and 1916 between Sharif Hussein, the Emir of Mecca and the British High Commissioner Sir Henry McMahon. In the exchange, McMahon (in the name of the British government) promised Shairf Hussein an independent Arab state in the area of Greater Syria. In return Sharif Hussein would launch an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire in the context of the First World War. Despite unresolved questions concerning the precise boarders, the Arab revolt began in Mecca on 10 June 1916. It was led by one of Sharif Hussein's sons, Emir Faysal, and accompanied by T.E. Lawrence, better known as "Lawrence of Arabia", who was sent as an agent for the British.[1]

Letters between Sharif Hussein and Sir Henry McMahon

Historical Context change

In the war against the Ottoman Empire, the British needed the help of the Arabs. Therefore, British officials devised a plan whereby an Arab uprising against the Ottomans would separate Ottoman troops in the Middle East from German troops in Africa. This led to what is known as the Hussein-McMahon correspondence: an exchange of letters between the British High Commissioner Henry McMahon, who was stationed in Egypt, and the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali. Sharif Hussein was considered the legitimate leader of the Arab people because of his alleged descent from the Prophet (the Hashemites) and his role as the official protector of the holy sites. In ten letters, borders within large parts of Ottoman Territory (Greater Syria) were drafted and discussed: the British promised an independent Arab territory from the Mediterranean to present-day Iraq and from the Indian Ocean to Syria.[1]

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 1965-, Anderson, Betty S. (2016). A history of the modern Middle East : rulers, rebels, and rogues. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-8324-8. OCLC 948735097. {{cite book}}: |last= has numeric name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)