Islamic Golden Age

period of cultural flourishing in the 8th to 13th centuries

The Islamic Golden Age, also sometimes known as the Islamic Renaissance,[1] is traditionally said to have lasted from the 8th century AD to the 13th century.[2] However, some place the beginning of the Islamic Golden Age as early as the Umayyad Caliphate (founded by Mu'awiya I),[3][4] and place its end as late as the end of the 15th-16th centuries, including the rise of the Islamic gunpowder empires, referring to the Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire and the Mughal Empire.

The Islamic Golden Age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom, which saw scholars from all over the Muslim world flock to Baghdad, the world's largest city by then, to translate the known world's classical knowledge into Arabic and Persian.[5] Under the Umayyads, Al-Andalus also became a centre of science, medicine, philosophy and invention during the Islamic Golden Age.[6][7]

This period was called the Golden Age, because engineers, scholars and traders in the Islamic world did much for the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology in this time. They built upon earlier traditions and added inventions and innovations of their own.[8] Howard R. Turner writes: "Muslim artists and scientists, princes and laborers together created a unique culture that has directly and indirectly influenced societies on every continent."[8]

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  1. Joel L. Kraemer (1992), Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam, p. 1 & 148, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004072594.
  2. Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today", The FASEB Journal 20, p. 1581-1586.
  3. Rodríguez, Manuel Lozano (19 June 2023). Bioethics of Displacement and Its Implications. IGI Global. ISBN 9781668448090.
  4. Haberl, Ferdinand J. (22 March 2023). Jihadi Intelligence and Counterintelligence: Ideological Foundations and Operational Methods. Springer. ISBN 9783031247446.
  5. Gutas, Dimitri (1998). Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early 'Abbāsid Society (2nd-4th/8th-10th Centuries). London: Routledge.Template:Pn
  6. Simon Barton (30 June 2009). A History of Spain. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 44–5. ISBN 978-1-137-01347-7.[permanent dead link]
  7. Francis Preston Venable (1894). A Short History of Chemistry. Heath. p. 21.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam, University of Texas Press, November 1, 1997, ISBN 0-292-78149-0, pg. 270 (book cover, last page)