Kingdom of Romania

kingdom in Southeastern Europe between 1881 and 1947

The Kingdom of Romania (or 'Romania' after 1969) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the First (in 1866), and respectively, the Second Constitution of Roumania. Thus, the Kingdom of Romania began with the reign of King Carol I of Romania.

Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
Regatul României

National Legionary State (1940–1941)
Statul Național Legionar

1881–1947
Motto: Nihil Sine Deo
("Nothing without God")
Anthem: Trăiască Regele
("Long live the King")
The Kingdom of Romania in 1939
The Kingdom of Romania in 1939
CapitalBucharest
(1881–1916, 1918–1947)
Iași (Jassy)
(1916–1918)
Common languagesRomanian (official)[1]
German, and Hungarian
Religion
Romanian Orthodox
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
(1881–1937; 1944–1947)
Absolute monarchy
(1938–1940)
Fascist dictatorship
(1937–1938; 1940–1941)
Military dictatorship
(1941–1944)
King 
• 1881–1914
Carol I
• 1914–1927
Ferdinand I
• 1927–1930
Michael I (1st reign)
• 1930–1940
Carol II
• 1940–1947
Michael I (2nd reign)
Prime Minister 
• 1881
Ion Brătianu (first)
• 1940–1944
Ion Antonescu[a]
• 1945–1947
Petru Groza (last)
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Historical eraBelle Époque • World War I • Interwar period • World War II
14 March 1881
10 August 1913
4 June 1920
29 March 1923
20 February 1938
14 September 1940
21 January 1941
23 August 1944
12 September 1944
30 December 1947
Area
1915[b]138,000 km2 (53,000 sq mi)
1940[b][c]295,049 km2 (113,919 sq mi)
Population
• 1915[b]
7,900,000
• 1940[b][c]
20,058,378
CurrencyRomanian Leu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
1881:
United Principalities
1913:
Kingdom of Bulgaria
1918:
Moldavian Democratic Republic
Duchy of Bukovina
Kingdom of Hungary
Soviet Union
Kingdom of Bulgaria
1947:
Socialist Republic of Romania
a. ^ Was formally declared Conducător (literally, "Leader") of the state on 6 September 1940, by a royal decree which consecrated a ceremonial role for the monarch.[2]
b. ^ Area and population according to Ioan Suciu, Istoria contemporana a României (1918–2005).[3]
c. ^ The indicator for the localities of Romania (1941).[4]

From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) to a full-fledged independent kingdom. During 1918-20, at the end of World War I, Transylvania, Eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia), and Bukovina were united with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, Northern Transylvania and Southern Dobruja were ceded to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria. In 1947 the last king was compelled to abdicate from throne. Socialist republic ruled by the Romanian Communist Party replaced the monarchy.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Constitutiunea din 1923" (in Romanian). Legislatie pentru Democratie. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  2. Dennis Deletant, Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania, 1940–1944, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-9341-6
  3. Ioan Scurtu (2005). "Istoria contemporana a României (1918-2005)" (in Romanian). Bucharest. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  4. Institutul Central de Statistică (1943). "Indicatorul localităților din România" (PDF) (in Romanian). Retrieved 20 October 2015.