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List of Presidents of the United States

Wikimedia list article

This list includes all people who have been sworn as President of the United States.

Contents

List of presidentsEdit

Parties

      None       Federalist       Democratic       Democratic-Republican       Whig       Republican

President State Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Previous office Vice President
1   George Washington
(1732–1799)
[1][2][3]
Virginia April 30, 1789
[n 2]
March 4, 1797 Independent[4] 1
(1789)
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
(1775–1783)
  John Adams
2
(1792)
2   John Adams
(1735–1826)
[5][6][7]
Massachusetts March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801
[n 3]
Federalist 3
(1796)
Vice President Thomas Jefferson
3   Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[8][9][10]
Virginia March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-Republican 4
(1800)
Vice President Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton[n 4]
March 4, 1805April 20, 1812
4   James Madison
(1751–1836)
[11][12][13]
Virginia March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-Republican Party 6
(1808)
Secretary of State
(1801–1809)
 
Vacant[n 5]
April 20, 1812March 4, 1813
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry[n 4]
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
Vacant[n 5]
November 23, 1814March 4, 1817
5   James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[14][15][16]
Virginia March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-Republican Party 8
(1816)
Secretary of State
(1811–1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6   John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[17][18][19]
Massachusetts March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829
[n 3]
Democratic-Republican Party 10
(1824)
Secretary of State
(1817–1825)
John C. Calhoun[n 6]
March 4, 1825December 28, 1832
7   Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
[20][21][22]
Tennessee March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic 11
(1828)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1823–1825)
 
Vacant[n 5]
December 28, 1832March 4, 1833
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8   Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[23][24][25]
New York March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841
[n 3][n 7]
Democratic 13
(1836)
Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson
9   William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
[26][27][28]
Ohio March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841
[n 4]
Whig 14
(1840)
Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
John Tyler
10   John Tyler
(1790–1862)
[29][30][31]
Virginia April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Vice President
[n 8]
Vacant[n 5]
Independent[n 9]
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
11   James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
[32][33][34]
Tennessee March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic 15
(1844)
Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841)
George M. Dallas
12   Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
[35][36][37]
Louisiana March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850
[n 10][n 4]
Whig 16
(1848)
U.S. Army Major general from the 1st Infantry Regiment
(1846–1849)
Millard Fillmore
13   Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[38][39][40]
New York July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853
[n 7]
Whig Vice President Vacant[n 5]
14   Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
[41][42][43]
New Hampshire March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic 17
(1852)
U.S. Army Brigadier general from the 9th Infantry Regiment
(1847–1848)
William R. King[n 4][n 10]
March 4, 1853April 18, 1853
Vacant[n 5]
April 18, 1853March 4, 1857
15   James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[44][45][46]
Pennsylvania March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic 18
(1856)
Minister to the United Kingdom
(1853–1856)
John C. Breckinridge
16   Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[47][48][49]
Illinois March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865
[n 10][n 11]
Republican 19
(1860)
U.S. Representative from Illinois
(1847–1849)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
Republican
National Union[n 12]
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4, 1865April 15, 1865
17   Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[50][51][52]
Tennessee April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union[n 12]
Independent[n 13]
Vice President Vacant
[n 5]
18   Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
[53][54][55]
Illinois March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican 21
(1868)
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson[n 4][n 10]
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1875March 4, 1877
19   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[56][57][58]
Ohio March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican 23
(1876)
Governor of Ohio
(1868–1872, 1876–1877)
William A. Wheeler
20   James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
[59][60][61]
Ohio March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881
[n 10][n 11]
Republican 24
(1880)
U.S. Representative from Ohio
(1863–1881)
Chester A. Arthur
21   Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[62][63][64]
New York September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
22   Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[65][66]
New York March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889
[n 3]
Democratic 25
(1884)
Governor of New York
(1883–1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks[n 4][n 10]
March 4, 1885November 25, 1885
Vacant[n 5]
November 25, 1885March 4, 1889
23   Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
[67][68][69]
Indiana March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893
[n 3]
Republican 26
(1888)
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Levi P. Morton
24   Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[65][66]
New York March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic 27
(1892)
President
(1885–1889)
Adlai Stevenson
25   William McKinley
(1843–1901)
[70][71][72]
Ohio March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901
[n 10][n 11]
Republican 28
(1896)
Governor of Ohio
(1892–1896)
Garret Hobart[n 4]
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
Vacant[n 5]
November 21, 1899March 4, 1901
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
of New York
March 4, 1901September 14, 1901
26   Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[73][74][75]
New York September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909
[n 7]
Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27   William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
[76][77][78]
Ohio March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913
[n 3]
Republican 31
(1908)
Secretary of War
(1904–1908)
James S. Sherman[n 4][n 10]
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
Vacant[n 5]
October 30, 1912March 4, 1913
28   Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
[79][80][81]
New Jersey March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic 32
(1912)
Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29   Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
[82][83][84]
Ohio March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923
[n 10][n 4]
Republican 34
(1920)
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Calvin Coolidge
30   Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[85][86][87]
Massachusetts August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31   Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
[88][89][90]
California March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933
[n 3]
Republican 36
(1928)
Secretary of Commerce
(1921–1928)
Charles Curtis
32   Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
[91][92][93]
New York March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04) April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[n 10][n 4]
Democratic 37
(1932)
[n 14]
Governor of New York
(1929–1932)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20, 1945April 12, 1945
33   Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[94][95][96]
Missouri April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic Vice President Vacant[n 5]
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34   Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
[97][98][99]
New York and Kansas January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961
[n 15]
Republican 42
(1952)
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35   John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
[100][101][102]
Massachusetts January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963
[n 10][n 11]
Democratic 44
(1960)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Lyndon B. Johnson
36   Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[103][104]
Texas November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic Vice President Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37   Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[105][106][107]
California January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974
[n 6]
Republican 46
(1968)
Vice President
(1953–1961)
Spiro Agnew[n 6]
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
47
(1972)
 
Vacant[n 5]
October 10, 1973December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
38   Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[108][109][110]
Michigan August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977
[n 16]
Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
August 9, 1974December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39   Jimmy Carter
(born 1924)
[111][112][113]
Georgia January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981
[n 3]
Democratic 48
(1976)
Governor of Georgia
(1971–1975)
Walter Mondale
40   Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[114][115][116]
California January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican 49
(1980)
Governor of California
(1967–1975)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41   George H. W. Bush
(born 1924)
[117][118][119]
Texas January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993
[n 3]
Republican 51
(1988)
Vice President Dan Quayle
42   Bill Clinton
(born 1946)
[120][121][122]
Arkansas January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic 52
(1992)
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43   George W. Bush
(born 1946)
[123][124][125]
Texas January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican 54
(2000)
Governor of Texas
(1995–2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44   Barack Obama
(born 1961)
[126][127][128]
Illinois January 20, 2009 January 20, 2017 Democratic 56
(2008)
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)
45   Donald J. Trump
(born 1946)
[129][130][131]
New York January 20, 2017 Incumbent Republican 58
(2016)
Chairman of The Trump Organization (1971–2017) Mike Pence

ReferencesEdit

  1. For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. Instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, George Washington's first-term inaugural was postponed 57 days (1 month and 27 days) to April 30, 1789, because the U.S. Congress had not yet achieved a quorum.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Unseated (lost re-election).
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Died in office of natural causes.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the Vice Presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Resigned.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term.
  8. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  9. Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 Died in office
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Assassinated.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  13. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  14. The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect in 1933, moving the 1937 inauguration day from March 4 to January 20, and shortening this term by 43 days.
  15. Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.
  16. Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful

ReferencesEdit

  1. The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  2. "George Washington – no Political Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  3. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  4. "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. 2012-03-09. http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/history-purpose/2012/mar/9/george-washington-warns-against-political-parties/. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  5. "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  6. "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  7. "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  8. "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  9. "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  10. "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  11. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  12. "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  13. "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  14. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  15. "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  16. "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  17. "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  18. "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  19. "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  20. "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  21. "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  22. "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  23. "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  24. "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  25. "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  26. "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
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  28. "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  29. "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
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  31. "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  32. "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
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  34. "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  35. "Biography of Zachary Taylor". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
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  37. "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  38. "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/millardfillmore/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  39. "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  40. "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  41. "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  42. "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  43. "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  44. "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  45. "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/buchanan. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  46. "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  47. "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  48. "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/lincoln. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  49. "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=16. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  50. "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjohnson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  51. "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/andrewjohnson. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  52. "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=17. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  53. "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  54. "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/grant. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  55. "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=18. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  56. "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  57. "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/hayes. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  58. "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=19. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
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