Magnetic flux is what generates the field around a magnetic material. It consists of photons, however, unlike the light we receive from the Sun, it is at a much lower frequency. (1) This is why magnetic field lines are not visible to the naked eye.
It is the alignment of electrons in the atomic shells of Ferromagnets and, separately, the “spinning” electrons in Electromagnets, that provides a material with it’s Magnetism. (2)
The number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface (such as a loop of wire). The magnetic flux through a closed surface (such as a ball) is always zero.
- Magnetic field
- James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces are two complementary aspects of electromagnetism.
- Maxwell's equations describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter.
- Gauss's law gives the relation between the electric flux flowing out a closed surface and the electric charge enclosed in the surface.
- Magnetic circuit is a method using an analogy with electric circuits to calculate the flux of complex systems of magnetic components.
- Magnetic mono pole is a hypothetical particle that may be loosely described as "a magnet with only one pole".
- Magnetic flux quantum is the quantum of magnetic flux passing through a superconductor.
- Carl Friedrich Gauss developed a collaboration with Wilhelm Weber which led to new knowledge in the field of magnetism.
1 - https://www.rpi.edu/dept/phys/ScIT/InformationStorage/faraday/magnetism_a.html