Mamluk Sultanate

Cairo based sultanate

The Mamluk Sultanate was a state that controlled Egypt, Palestine, and Syria from 1250 to 1517.[1][2][3] The first sultans (kings) of the Mamluk Sultanate were mamluks (slave-soldiers) in the armies of the Ayyubid dynasty. The Mamluk Sultanate was the strongest military power in the central Muslim world.[4] The Mamluk sultans also controlled south-eastern Asia Minor and western Arabia.[4] Most of the sultanate's mamluks were Turkic people or Circassians.[3][1] The Turkish language was the state's and the government's most important language.[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Keough, Leyla (2010). "Mamluk State". In Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; Appiah, Kwame Anthony (eds.). Encyclopedia of Africa (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195337709.001.0001/acref-9780195337709-e-2498. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9.
  2. Kazhdan, Alexander P.; Talbot, Alice-Mary (2005) [1991]. "Mamlūks". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-3285. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S., eds. (2009). "Mamluk". The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195309911.001.0001/acref-9780195309911-e-558. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Esposito, John L., ed. (2003). "Mamluks". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001/acref-9780195125580-e-1415. ISBN 978-0-19-512558-0.