Manchu

East Asian ethnic group native to northeastern China (Manchuria)
(Redirected from Manchu people)

The Manchu people[1] are a Tungusic people who came from Manchuria (today's Northeastern China). In ancient times they were called "Juchen". During their rise in the seventeenth century they conquered the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, which established a republican government in its place.

Manchu (Manju, Man)
满族
Manchuguard.jpg
Total population
approx. 10.68 million (2000) [1]
Regions with significant populations
 China (Heilongjiang · Jilin · Liaoning)
There may also be members in Taiwan, United States, Canada and Japan.
Languages
Manchu · Mandarin Chinese
Religion
Buddhism, Christianity and other religions
Related ethnic groups
Xibe, other Tungusic peoples

The Qing Dynasty required by law that all males must wear a hairstyle called the Manchu queue, in which men had to shave the front of their heads and wear a long braid on the back of their heads.

Local Han civilian militias were used by the Qing government during the White Lotus rebellion instead of using extra Manchu bannermen.[2][3][4][5]

Manchu bannermen and Mongol Bannermen in the banner garrison of Zhenjiang, including the Manchu banner commander Hailong, committed suicide after slaughtering their own wives and children after the British defeated them in the Battle of Chinkiang in 1842.[6] The Manchu bannermen of the banner garrison in Zhapu killed their own wives and children before committing suicide after the British defeated them in the Battle of Chapu in 1842 while the non-banner Han Chinese soldiers did not commit suicide and stayed alive.[7][8] Han Green Standard Army soldiers abandoned the Manchu bannermen to die.[9][10][11] British witnesses said that the Manchu population of the Zhenjiang garrison was effectively extinct as the corpses of Manchu men, women and children littered the garrison. "Dead bodies of Tartars in every house we entered, principally women and children thrown into wells or otherwise murdered by their own people. A great number of those who escaped our fire committed suicide after destroying their families; the loss of life has been appalling, and it may be said that the Manchu race in this city is extinct."[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

The Manchu are still a separate ethnicity from the Han Chinese and are categorized as a separate ethnic minority by the government of China but the majority of Manchus no longer speak their own language much as the majority of the Irish people remain separate from English but speak English as their first language.

Other websitesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Manchu:   Manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж
  2. DAI, YINGCONG (2009). "Civilians Go into Battle: Hired Militias in the White Lotus War, 1796-1805". Asia Major. 22 (2): 145–78. JSTOR 41649980.
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20190802222345/http://www2.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/file/1405qWXADQr.pdf https://ur.booksc.me/book/26745377/9d8cd5
  4. Elleman, Bruce A. (2005). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Warfare and History. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 1134610084.
  5. https://quizlet.com/356634651/hist-484201-final-exam-preparation-flash-cards/ https://tr.sng1lib.org/book/698651/f87a37?dsource=recommend https://epdf.pub/modern-chinese-warfare-1795-1989.html
  6. Elliott, Mark (June 1990). "Bannerman and Townsman: Ethnic Tension in Nineteenth-Century Jiangnan". Late Imperial China. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 11 (1): 36–74. doi:10.1353/late.1990.0005. S2CID 143693253. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. {{cite journal}}: Check |url= value (help)
  7. Makeham, John, ed. (2008). China: The World's Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Ancient civilizations Eyewitness travel guides. Thames & Hudson. p. 331. ISBN 978-0500251423. The 1,600 Manchu bannermen , badly equipped and trained , had defended the city desperately . Facing defeat , many of them killed their wives and children and then hanged themselves rather than surrender to the foreigners .
  8. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The life and campaigns of Hugh, first Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Westminster, A. Constable & Co., Ltd. p. 265.
  9. Lovell, Julia (2015). The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of Modern China. ABRAMS. p. 27. ISBN 978-1468313239.
  10. https://books.google.com/books?id=tq1viJQK1AsC&pg=PT189&dq=%22not+their+fight%22+manchu+british&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiZpOmkzbb5AhXmXvEDHQdJDwsQ6AF6BAgDEAM https://rationalityofaith.wordpress.com/2016/05/18/notes-and-comments-on-julia-lovells-the-opium-war/ https://lukeford.net/blog/?p=70956 https://chinglican.synology.me/2016/05/18/notes-and-comments-on-julia-lovells-the-opium-war/ https://chinglican.synology.me/?p=9311
  11. 甘, 棠 (2018/08/29). "鸦片战争之镇江战役". 美篇,中老年兴趣社区. Archived from the original on 2020-03-25. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The life and campaigns of Hugh, first Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Westminster, A. Constable & Co., Ltd. p. 275.
  13. "Opium War: 1839 - 1842". The British Empire.
  14. Forrest, George W. (March 1904). "VISCOUNT GOUGH". Blackwood's magazine. Edinburgh W. Blackwood.
  15. https://archive.org/stream/blackwoodsmagazi175edinuoft/blackwoodsmagazi175edinuoft_djvu.txt https://archive.org/stream/cu31924088002120/cu31924088002120_djvu.txt https://www.quora.com/Were-the-West-and-Japan-really-surprised-that-the-Qing-empire-was-so-easily-defeated-in-the-Opium-Wars
  16. "Historical Time Line 1850 - 1874". Royal Marines. Archived from the original on 2019-03-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  17. Rait, Robert Sangster (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal, Volume 1. A. Constable & Company, Limited. p. 275.
  18. "Chinese Imperialism".
  19. Farwell, Byron (1988). Eminent Victorian Soldiers: Seekers of Glory (illustrated ed.). W.W. Norton. p. 32. ISBN 0393305333.
  20. Giddings, Robert (1994). Imperial Echoes: Eye-Witness Accounts of Victoria's Little Wars (illustrated ed.). Pen and Sword. p. 67. ISBN 085052394X.
  21. Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1808). The History of China, Volume 2 (revised ed.). W. Thacker & Company. p. 129.