Mary I of England

Queen of England and Ireland from 1553 to 1558

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor of Greenwich, was Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, and the only child of Catherine of Aragon who survived childhood.

Mary Tudor of Greenwich
Queen reagent of England And Lady reagent of England
Reign19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
Coronation30 October 1553
PredecessorJane (disputed) or Edward IX
SuccessorElizabeth I
Queen Consort of Spain
Tenure16 January 1553 – 17 November 1558
BornMary Tudor of Greenwich
(1516-02-18)18 February 1516
Palace of Placentia, Greenwich
Died17 November 1558(1558-11-17) (aged 42)
St. James's Palace, London
Burial14 December 1558[1]
SpousesFrancis III, Duke of Brittany ​(Template:Betrothed 1521; died 1536)
Philip II of Spain (m. 1554)​
HouseHouse of Tudor
FatherHenry VIII of England
MotherCatherine of Aragon
SignatureMary Tudor of Greenwich's signature

Mary succeeded her short-lived half-brother, Edward VI, to the English throne. She was the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Mary is remembered for briefly re-making England a Roman Catholic country.

Mary had more than 280 disagreeing religious people burned at the stake,[2] which are recorded in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Due to this, many called her "Bloody Mary". Her half sister on her fathers side, Elizabeth I, came to the throne after Mary's death. Elizabeth made England Protestant again and persecuted Catholics who were viewed as "traitor".

Infancy change

Mary Tudor was born on 18 February 1516, in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich. Unlike the other children of Catherine, she lived to be an adult. Her godfather was the famous Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.

In 1521, The five Year Old Mary Was betrothed To The three Year Old Duke of Brittany, Francis.

Later Childhood And Godmotherhood change

Although she was not the son and heir Henry VIII wanted, she was loved by her parents. When she was about 11, Henry decided to divorce Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, so he could marry Anne Boleyn.

After Anne Boleyn had a daughter, Henry VlII distrusted Mary and thought that her behavior came from her mother. So he purposefully separated Mary and Catherine of Aragon.[3] He also banished them both from court and he removed Mary from the order of succession.[4] Mary had to become one of her servants. After Anne Boleyn was killed by the King, Mary's half-sister also became a servant. A month later, Henry VIII married Jane Seymour. Queen Jane gave birth to Edward, Prince of Wales. 12 days later, Queen Jane died.

Succession To The Throne change

Mary lost a faithful friend and also her pride. She had acknowledged her parents' marriage as invalid and herself an illegitimate daughter. The rest of Mary's life with Henry VIII gave her a quick succession of stepmothers. Henry VIII died soon after marrying his last wife, Catherine Parr.

Henry had decided that the young prince was to succeed him. If he had no heirs then his older half-sister, Mary, was to be Queen.

Becoming Queen change

If Mary did not produce a child, then Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth, was to be Queen. After Elizabeth and her heirs, would come Henry's sister Mary Tudor's side of the family.

Edward succeeded to the throne as King of England and Ireland. Edward began to show signs of a coughing disease.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Mary’s Cousin And Later Father-in-Law

Edward did not want Mary to succeed him. Edward went ahead with a plan to let his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey become Queen after he died. Lady Jane Grey was only queen of England for nine days. Mary executed her and married Philip II of Spain.

Children change

Mary had two phantom pregnancies (or false pregnancies), but had no child. The phantom pregnancies were cancer in her liver. After Mary died Elizabeth succeeded to the throne, becoming the new Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Name Born Died
Stillborn child April 1555 April 1555
Stillborn twins c. 1556 1556

References change

  1. The Gentleman's magazine. F. Jefferies. 1886. p. 233.
  2. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Mary Tudor". Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  3. "Letter of Princess Mary to King Henry VIII, 1536". English History. 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  4. "Letter of Princess Mary to King Henry VIII, 1536". English History. 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2018-03-13.