New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a colony of the Dutch Empire from 1614 through 1664 and from 1673 through 1674. It was a base for the fur trade. The capital was New Amsterdam, modern-day New York City. The other important trading post in New Netherland was Fort Orange, now called Albany, New York. Most settlers lived in these towns or between them, along the Hudson River but some lived in distant parts of the colony.
New Netherland was between English colonies which the Kingdom of England wanted to connect together. During the Anglo-Dutch Wars England sent warships to conquer New Netherland. The Dutch colonists surrendered because they were afraid the English Royal Navy would destroy their town. The Dutch traded the colony to England for Surinam in South America and Run (island) in the East Indies, which they thought were worth more. The English divided their new colony to make the English colonies of New York and New Jersey. They also gave parts to Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland.