Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. He ruled from 1953 to 1964 when Leonid Brezhnev, a Red Army Major General and President of the Soviet Union from 1960 to 1964 (during Khrushchev's own rule) came to power in 1964 after a bloodless palace coup against Khrushchev, just 11 years after Stalin died.
|First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
September 14, 1953 – October 14, 1964
|Preceded by||Joseph Stalin|
|Succeeded by||Leonid Brezhnev|
|Premier of the Soviet Union|
March 27, 1958 – October 14, 1964
|First Deputies||Frol Kozlov|
|Preceded by||Nikolai Bulganin|
|Succeeded by||Alexei Kosygin|
|Born||15 April 1894|
Kalinovka, Dmitriyevsky Uyezd, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||September 11, 1971 (aged 77)|
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
|Spouse(s)||Yefrosinia Khrushcheva (1916–1919, died)|
Marusia Khrushcheva (1922, separated)
Nina Khrushcheva (1923–1971, survived as widow)
He supported the Soviet space program and was the leader when Yuri Gagarin flew into space and became the first man to leave Earth in April 1961. Khrushchev was also the leader who ordered the Berlin Wall to be built in the East Berlin half of the former Nazi capital city Berlin. The wall separated it from West Berlin in August 1961 until the end of the Cold War .
Early life Edit
Nikita was born in the town of Kalinovka in Russia. He later moved to Ukraine. He worked in mines, and became part of the Bolshevik movement. He was a political commissar in the Red Army in the Russian Civil War and again in World War II and moved his way up in the Communist Party, eventually becoming trusted by Joseph Stalin. When Stalin died, Georgy Malenkov and several others including Khrushchev shared power. Eventually Khrushchev became the leader.
When Nikita became the leader of the Soviet Union, he began something he called "De-Stalinization". He made a secret speech, in which he denounced Stalin as a man who committed many murders of innocent people. In early 1956, he took down all posters and statues of Joseph Stalin. Also, he moved Stalin's grave to a place where people could not see it.
Relations with the "West" Edit
He also had better contacts with the western countries like the USA, Britain, and France. This means the USSR and the western world were friendlier. He visited America in 1959. During this visit, Khrushchev spoke at the United Nations and visited where he wanted, including destinations such as New York and Hollywood. However, his visit to Disneyland was cancelled for security reasons.
But the USSR and the US still did not trust each other. In 1962 America and the USSR had a Cuban Missile Crisis which could have led to nuclear war, but didn't. Khrushchev had bargained with the Americans to get rid of the missiles they had placed in Turkey, for the missiles in Cuba were the only way for withdrawal.
Relations with China Edit
During the period of "De-Stalinization", relations deteriorated between the Soviet Union and China. These policies were viewed by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party as divergences in the two states interpretations of Marxist-Leninist Doctrine. The resulting tensions were a contributing factor to the Sino-Soviet Split
- listen (help·info) Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв; IPA: [xruˈɕːʲof]
- Tompson 1995, p. 2. Soviet era reports list his birth date as April 17 (April 5 old style) but recent discovery of his birth certificate has made biographers accept the April 15 date. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTompson1995 (help)
- Jennifer Rosenberg. Body of Stalin removed from Lenin's tomb. About.com Guide  Archived 2011-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Carlson 2009, p. 247. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCarlson2009 (help)
- Taubman 2003, pp. 421–22. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTaubman2003 (help)
- "NPR". 'K Blows Top': Reliving Khrushchev's American Tour. June 29, 2009. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Whitman, Alden (1971-09-12), "Khrushchev's human dimensions brought him to power and to his downfall", The New York Times, retrieved 2009-09-25 (fee for article, but available free here)
- Taubman 2003, p. 575. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTaubman2003 (help)
- Taubman 2003, pp. 470–71. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTaubman2003 (help)
| First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party
| Prime Minister of the Soviet Union