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Non-Aligned Movement

group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organization (group of countries) who do not want to be officially aligned (friends) with or against any major power bloc (group of countries). In 2018, the movement had 125 members and 25 observer countries.[3]

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
Map of the world indicating members and observers of the Non-Aligned Movement
     Member countries     Observer countries
Coordinating BureauNew York City, New York, U.S.
Membership[1]
  • 125 members
  • 25 observers
Leaders
• Principal decision-
making organ
Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries[2]
• Chairperson
Nicolas Maduro
Establishment1961 in Belgrade
as the Conference of Heads of State of Government of Non-Aligned Countries
Website
mnoal.org

The group was started in Belgrade in 1961. It was created by Yugoslavia's President, Josip Broz Tito, India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt's second President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Ghana's first president Kwame Nkrumah, and Indonesia's first President, Sukarno. All five leaders believed that developing countries should not help either the Western or Eastern blocs in the Cold War. They also believed that developing countries should not be capitalist or communist, but should try to find a different way to help their people.

The Havana Declaration of 1979 said that the purpose of the organization is to help countries keep their "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."[4] This means that they wanted to govern their countries without the main capitalist powers nor the major socialist states telling them how.

The countries of the non-aligned movement are nearly two-thirds of the United Nations's members and 55% of the world population.

Secretaries-GeneralEdit

Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary-general elected at last summit meeting. As a considerable part of the movement's work is undertaken at the United Nations in New York, the chair country's ambassador to the UN is expected to devote time and effort to matters concerning the Non-Aligned Movement. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.[5]

Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Name Country Party From To
Josip Broz Tito   Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1961 1964
Gamal Abdel Nasser   United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970
Kenneth Kaunda   Zambia United National Independence Party 1970 1973
Houari Boumediène   Algeria Revolutionary Council 1973 1976
William Gopallawa   Sri Lanka Independent 1976 1978
Junius Richard Jayewardene United National Party 1978 1979
Fidel Castro   Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 1979 1983
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy   India Janata Party 1983
Zail Singh Congress Party 1983 1986
Robert Mugabe   Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 1986 1989
Janez Drnovšek   Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1989 1990
Borisav Jović Socialist Party of Serbia 1990 1991
Stjepan (Stipe) Mesić Croatian Democratic Union 1991
Branko Kostić Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992
Dobrica Ćosić[source?] Independent 1992
Suharto   Indonesia Partai Golongan Karya 1992 1995
Ernesto Samper   Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 1995 1998
Andrés Pastrana Arango Colombian Conservative Party 1998
Nelson Mandela   South Africa African National Congress 1998 1999
Thabo Mbeki 1999 2003
Mahathir Mohamad   Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003 2006
Fidel Castro[6]   Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 2006 2008
Raúl Castro 2008 2009
Hosni Mubarak   Egypt National Democratic Party 2009 2011
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Independent 2011 2012
Mohamed Morsi Freedom and Justice Party 2012
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad   Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2012 2013
Hassan Rouhani Combatant Clergy Association 2013 2016
Nicolás Maduro   Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela 2016 2019
Ilham Aliyev   Azerbaijan New Azerbaijan Party 2019 (2022)

MembersEdit

Full MembersEdit

 
Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2018). Light blue states have observer status.
  1.   Afghanistan
  2.   Algeria
  3.   Angola
  4.   Antigua and Barbuda
  5.   Azerbaijan
  6.   Bahamas
  7.   Bahrain
  8.   Bangladesh
  9.   Barbados
  10.   Belarus
  11.   Belize
  12.   Benin
  13.   Bhutan
  14.   Bolivia
  15.   Bosnia and Herzegovina
  16.   Botswana
  17.   Brazil
  18.   Brunei Darussalam
  19.   Burkina Faso
  20.   Burundi
  21.   Cape Verde
  22.   Cambodia
  23.   Cameroon
  24.   Central African Republic
  25.   Chad
  26.   Chile
  27.   Colombia
  28.   Comoros
  29.   Congo
  30.   Cuba
  31.   Costa Rica
  32.   Democratic Republic of the Congo
  33.   Djibouti
  34.   Dominica
  35.   Dominican Republic
  36.   Ecuador
  37.   Egypt
  38.   Equatorial Guinea
  39.   Eritrea
  40.   Eswatini
  41.   Ethiopia
  42.   Fiji
  43.   Gabon
  44.   Gambia
  45.   Ghana
  46.   Grenada
  47.   Guatemala
  48.   Guinea
  49.   Guinea-Bissau
  50.   Guyana
  51.   Haiti
  52.   Honduras
  53.   India
  54.   Indonesia
  55.   Iran
  56.   Iraq
  57.   Ivory Coast
  58.   Jamaica
  59.   Jordan
  60.   Kenya
  61.   Kuwait
  62.   Laos
  63.   Lebanon
  64.   Lesotho
  65.   Liberia
  66.   Libya
  67.   Madagascar
  68.   Malawi
  69.   Malaysia
  70.   Maldives
  71.   Mali
  72.   Mauritania
  73.   Mauritius
  74.   Mongolia
  75.   Morocco
  76.   Mozambique
  77.   Myanmar
  78.   Namibia
  79.     Nepal
  80.   Nicaragua
  81.   Niger
  82.   Nigeria
  83.   North Korea
  84.   Oman
  85.   Pakistan
  86.   Palestine
  87.   Panama
  88.   Papua New Guinea
  89.   Paraguay
  90.   Peru
  91.   Philippines
  92.   Qatar
  93.   Rwanda
  94.   Saint Kitts and Nevis
  95.   Saint Lucia
  96.   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  97.   São Tomé and Príncipe
  98.   Saudi Arabia
  99.   Senegal
  100.   Seychelles
  101.   Sierra Leone
  102.   Singapore
  103.   Somalia
  104.   South Africa
  105.   South Sudan
  106.   Sri Lanka
  107.   Sudan
  108.   Suriname
  109.   Syria
  110.   Tanzania
  111.   Thailand
  112.   Timor-Leste
  113.   Togo
  114.   Trinidad and Tobago
  115.   Tunisia
  116.   Turkmenistan
  117.   Uganda
  118.   United Arab Emirates
  119.   Uzbekistan
  120.   Vanuatu
  121.   Venezuela
  122.   Vietnam
  123.   Yemen
  124.   Zambia
  125.   Zimbabwe

Former membersEdit

  1.   Cyprus Cyprus is a founding member of NAM and on 2004 Cyprus ceased their membership along with Malta until they became a member of the European Union.
  2.   Malta Malta officially joined the Non Aligned Movement in 1974 and on 2004 Malta ceased their membership along with Cyprus until they became a member of the European Union.
  3.   Poland Poland officially joined the Non Aligned Movement in 1989 and on 2004 Poland ceased their membership along with Cyprus and Malta until they became a member of the European Union.
  4.   Yugoslavia Yugoslavia is a founding member of NAM. The Yugoslavian capital, Belgrade, is the birthplace of NAM. Yugoslavia hosted NAM's summits from 1961 to 1991. They withdrew from the Non Aligned Movement in 1992 along with their dissolution. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of the Former Yugoslavia that currently joined the Non Aligned Movement.
  5.   Ukraine (Dropped Observer Status)

ObserversEdit

The following countries and organizations have observer status:[7]


ReferencesEdit

  1. "NAM Members & Observers". 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Tehran, 26–31 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  3. http://www.namegypt.org/en/AboutName/MembersObserversAndGuests/Pages/default.aspx
  4. Fidel Castro speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the non-aligned countries movement 12 October 1979; Pakistan & Non-Aligned Movement, Board of Investment - Government of Pakistan, 2003
  5. "NAM Structure". Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  6. Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations", People's Daily, 16-09-2006.
  7. Member and Observer Countries, Non-Aligned Movement

Other websitesEdit