Non-Aligned Movement

group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organization (group of countries) who do not want to be officially aligned with or against any major power bloc (group of countries). In 2019, the movement had 120 members and 25 observer countries.[3]

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
Map of the world indicating members and observers of the Non-Aligned Movement
  Member countries
  Observer countries
Coordinating BureauNew York City, New York, U.S.
Membership[1]
  • 125 members
  • 25 observers
Leaders
• Principal decision-
making organ
Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries[2]
• Chairperson
Nicolas Maduro
Establishment1961 in Belgrade
as the Conference of Heads of State of Government of Non-Aligned Countries
Website
mnoal.org

The group was started in Belgrade in 1961. It was created by Yugoslavia's President, Josip Broz Tito, India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt's second President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Ghana's first president Kwame Nkrumah, and Indonesia's first President, Sukarno. All five leaders believed that developing countries should not help either the Western or Eastern blocs in the Cold War. They also believed that developing countries should not be capitalist or communist, but should try to find a different way to help their people.

The Havana Declaration of 1979 said that the purpose of the organization is to help countries keep their "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."[4] This means that they wanted to govern their countries without the main capitalist powers nor the major socialist states telling them how.

The countries of the non-aligned movement are nearly two-thirds of the United Nations's members and 55% of the world population.

Secretaries-GeneralEdit

Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary-general elected at last summit meeting. As a considerable part of the movement's work is undertaken at the United Nations in New York, the chair country's ambassador to the UN is expected to devote time and effort to matters concerning the Non-Aligned Movement. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.[5]

Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Name Country Party From To
Josip Broz Tito   Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1961 1964
Gamal Abdel Nasser   United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970
Kenneth Kaunda   Zambia United National Independence Party 1970 1973
Houari Boumediène   Algeria Revolutionary Council 1973 1976
William Gopallawa   Sri Lanka Independent 1976 1978
Junius Richard Jayewardene United National Party 1978 1979
Fidel Castro   Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 1979 1983
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy   India Janata Party 1983
Zail Singh Congress Party 1983 1986
Robert Mugabe   Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 1986 1989
Janez Drnovšek   Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1989 1990
Borisav Jović Socialist Party of Serbia 1990 1991
Stjepan (Stipe) Mesić Croatian Democratic Union 1991
Branko Kostić Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992
Dobrica Ćosić[source?] Independent 1992
Suharto   Indonesia Partai Golongan Karya 1992 1995
Ernesto Samper   Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 1995 1998
Andrés Pastrana Arango Colombian Conservative Party 1998
Nelson Mandela   South Africa African National Congress 1998 1999
Thabo Mbeki 1999 2003
Mahathir Mohamad   Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003 2006
Fidel Castro[6]   Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 2006 2008
Raúl Castro 2008 2009
Hosni Mubarak   Egypt National Democratic Party 2009 2011
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Independent 2011 2012
Mohamed Morsi Freedom and Justice Party 2012
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad   Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2012 2013
Hassan Rouhani Combatant Clergy Association 2013 2016
Nicolás Maduro   Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela 2016 2019
Ilham Aliyev   Azerbaijan New Azerbaijan Party 2019 (2022)

MembersEdit

Full Members[7]Edit

 
Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2018). Light blue states have observer status.
  1.   Afghanistan
  2.   Algeria
  3.   Angola
  4.   Antigua and Barbuda
  5.   Azerbaijan
  6.   Bahamas
  7.   Bahrain
  8.   Bangladesh
  9.   Barbados
  10.   Belarus
  11.   Belize
  12.   Benin
  13.   Bhutan
  14.   Bolivia
  15.   Botswana
  16.   Brunei Darussalam
  17.   Burkina Faso
  18.   Burundi
  19.   Cape Verde
  20.   Cambodia
  21.   Cameroon
  22.   Central African Republic
  23.   Chad
  24.   Chile
  25.   Colombia
  26.   Comoros
  27.   Congo
  28.   Cuba
  29.   Democratic Republic of the Congo
  30.   Djibouti
  31.   Dominica
  32.   Dominican Republic
  33.   Ecuador
  34.   Egypt
  35.   Equatorial Guinea
  36.   Eritrea
  37.   Eswatini
  38.   Ethiopia
  39.   Fiji
  40.   Gabon
  41.   Gambia
  42.   Ghana
  43.   Grenada
  44.   Guatemala
  45.   Guinea
  46.   Guinea-Bissau
  47.   Guyana
  48.   Haiti
  49.   Honduras
  50.   India
  51.   Indonesia
  52.   Iran
  53.   Iraq
  54.   Ivory Coast
  55.   Jamaica
  56.   Jordan
  57.   Kenya
  58.   Kuwait
  59.   Laos
  60.   Lebanon
  61.   Lesotho
  62.   Liberia
  63.   Libya
  64.   Madagascar
  65.   Malawi
  66.   Malaysia
  67.   Maldives
  68.   Mali
  69.   Mauritania
  70.   Mauritius
  71.   Mongolia
  72.   Morocco
  73.   Mozambique
  74.   Myanmar
  75.   Namibia
  76.     Nepal
  77.   Nicaragua
  78.   Niger
  79.   Nigeria
  80.   North Korea
  81.   Oman
  82.   Pakistan
  83.   Palestine
  84.   Panama
  85.   Papua New Guinea
  86.   Peru
  87.   Philippines
  88.   Qatar
  89.   Rwanda
  90.   Saint Kitts and Nevis
  91.   Saint Lucia
  92.   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  93.   São Tomé and Príncipe
  94.   Saudi Arabia
  95.   Senegal
  96.   Seychelles
  97.   Sierra Leone
  98.   Singapore
  99.   Somalia
  100.   South Africa
  101.   Sri Lanka
  102.   Sudan
  103.   Suriname
  104.   Syria
  105.   Tanzania
  106.   Thailand
  107.   Timor-Leste
  108.   Togo
  109.   Trinidad and Tobago
  110.   Tunisia
  111.   Turkmenistan
  112.   Uganda
  113.   United Arab Emirates
  114.   Uzbekistan
  115.   Vanuatu
  116.   Venezuela
  117.   Vietnam
  118.   Yemen
  119.   Zambia
  120.   Zimbabwe

Former membersEdit

  1.   Cyprus Cyprus is a founding member of NAM and on 2004 Cyprus ceased their membership along with Malta when they became a member of the European Union.
  2.   Malta Malta officially joined the Non Aligned Movement in 1974 and on 2004 ceased their membership along with Cyprus when they became a member of the European Union.
  1.   Yugoslavia Yugoslavia is a founding member of NAM. The Yugoslavian capital, Belgrade, is the birthplace of NAM. Yugoslavia hosted NAM's summits from 1961 to 1964 and 1989 to 1992. They withdrew from the Non Aligned Movement in 1992 along with their dissolution.
  2.   Ukraine (Dropped Observer Status)

ObserversEdit

The following countries and organizations have observer status:[8]


ReferencesEdit

  1. "NAM Members & Observers" Archived 2014-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Tehran, 26–31 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Fidel Castro speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the non-aligned countries movement 12 October 1979 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine; Pakistan & Non-Aligned Movement Archived 2006-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, Board of Investment - Government of Pakistan, 2003
  5. "NAM Structure". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  6. Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations", People's Daily, 16-09-2006.
  7. "Members and Observers" (PDF). Azerbaijani Chairmanship to the Non-Aligned Movement. 20 August 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  8. Member and Observer Countries Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine, Non-Aligned Movement

Other websitesEdit