Northwest Indian War

1785-1795 war between a confederation of Native Americans and the United States

The Northwest Indian War (1786–1795) was a war between Native Americans of the Northwest Indian Confederacy and the United States. The war was about who should control the Northwest Territory. This territory included the current states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. It is considered the first war of the American Indian Wars.[1] The United States lost several battles. Eventually, the Americans won and defeated the Native Americans.

Northwest Indian War
Part of the American Indian Wars

This depiction of the Treaty of Greenville negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Wayne's officers.

United States victory

U.S. occupation of the Northwest Territory
 United States
Kingdom of Great Britain Province of Quebec (until 1791)
Kingdom of Great Britain Lower Canada (1791–1795)
Commanders and leaders
United States George Washington
United States Henry Knox
United States Josiah Harmar
United States Arthur St. Clair
United States Anthony Wayne
United States James Wilkinson
Blue Jacket
Little Turtle
Kingdom of Great Britain William Campbell
Kingdom of Great Britain William Caldwell
Casualties and losses
1,221 killed
458 wounded
1,000+ killed
Unknown wounded

The United States got the land of the Northwest Territory from Great Britain. This land was part of the Treaty of Paris (1783) after the American Revolution. There were several defeats for the Americans. They include Harmar campaign (1790) and St. Clair's defeat (1791). St. Clair's defeat was a major defeat for the Americans. It is perhaps the greatest defeat in American military history.[2] Many American soldiers died. General Washington created a larger army. He made Anthony Wayne the new General. Americans won the last battle. This battle was the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The Natives had to give up their land in Ohio in the Treaty of Greenville (1795). In the Jay Treaty (1795), Natives gave up the lands around the British Great Lakes.

Key People change

Major General Anthony Wayne, 1795
Brigadier General James Wilkinson

United States change

  • Henry Knox, first United States Secretary of War
  • Josiah Harmar, Brigadier General in command of the First American Regiment who led the 1790 Harmar campaign
  • Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory and Major General at St. Clair's defeat
  • Anthony Wayne, Major General in command of Legion of the United States at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • Charles Scott, Brigadier General commanding the Kentucky militia during Wayne's campaign
  • James Wilkinson, Lieutenant Colonel in command of Fort Washington, Wayne's second in command and Spanish spy

United Indian Nations change

Little Turtle (Michikinikwa)
Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), 1786

British Empire change

Fort Washington
St. Clair's Defeat
Fort Defiance
Fallen Timbers
Fort Jefferson
Fort Harmar
Fort Lernoult (Detroit)
Fort St. Clair
Fort Hamilton

References change

  1. "Indian Wars Campaigns | U.S. Army Center of Military History". Retrieved 2022-08-04.
  2. Landon Y. Jones (2005). William Clark and the Shaping of the West. p. 41. ISBN 9781429945363.