In 1940 during the Battle of France the French government asked him to govern the country. He surrendered to the Germans. From 1940 to the end of 1942, Vichy France was a puppet state of Nazi Germany. Pétain became a puppet of Nazi Germany as they fully occupied and disarmed Vichy France.
After the war, Pétain was tried and convicted for treason. He was originally sentenced to death, but due to his age and World War I service his sentence was commuted to life in prison. He died in 1951.