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The President of the Republic of Haiti (French: Président de la République d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Prezidan peyi Repiblik Ayiti) is the head of state of Haiti. They serve as the executive power in Haiti. The power is divided between the president and the government headed by the Prime Minister of Haiti. The current President is Jovenel Moïse, who took office on February 7, 2017.

President of the
Republic of Haiti
Président de la
République d'Haïti
Prezidan peyi Repiblik Ayiti
Flag of Haiti.svg
Jovenel Moise.jpg
Incumbent
Jovenel Moïse

since 7 February 2017
StyleHis Excellency[1]
Member ofCouncil of Ministers
ResidencePalais National
SeatPort-au-Prince, Haiti
Term lengthFive years
Renewable once non-consecutively
Inaugural holderAlexandre Pétion
FormationOctober 17, 1806 (1806-10-17)
SuccessionPrime Minister
Websitehttps://www.communication.gouv.ht
/rubrique/presidence/

Contents

QualificationsEdit

To be elected President, a candidate must:

  1. be a native-born Haitian and never renounced that nationality;
  2. have reached the age of 35 by election day;
  3. be the owner of a real property and have one's habitual residence in the country;
  4. reside in the country at least 5 years before election day;
  5. have been discharged of responsibilities if previously handling public funds.

Heads of State of HaitiEdit

Saint-Domingue (1791–1804)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
N/A   Toussaint Louverture
(1743–1803)
1 January 1791 6 May 1802 11 years,

127 days

Independent Leader of the Haitian Revolution (1 January 1791 – 6 May 1802)
Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue (1797 – 7 July 1801)
Governor-General for Life of the entire island of Hispaniola (7 July 1801 – 6 May 1802)
Vacant (6 May 1802–1 January 1804)
N/A   Jean-Jacques Dessalines
(1758–1806)
1 January 1804 22 September 1804 265 days Independent Governor-General of Haiti

First Empire of Haiti (1804–1806)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Time in office Coronation Title(s)
1   Jacques I
(1758–1806)
22 September 1804 17 October 1806 2 years,

25 days

8 October 1804 Emperor of Haiti

State of Haiti (1806–1811)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
N/A   Henri Christophe
(1767–1820)
17 October 1806 28 March 1811 4 years,

163 days

Independent Provisional Chief of the Haitian Government (17 October 1806 – 17 February 1807)
President (17 February 1807 – 28 March 1811)
[a]

Kingdom of Haiti (1811–1820)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Time in office Coronation Title(s)
N/A   Henri I
(1767–1820)
28 March 1811 8 October 1820 9 years,

192 days

2 June 1811 King of Haiti[b]

Republic of Haiti (1806–1822)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
1   Alexandre Pétion
(1770–1818)
17 October 1806 29 March 1818 11 years,

165 days

Independent President (17 October 1806 – 9 October 1816)
President for Life (9 October 1816 – 29 March 1818)
[c]
2   Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
30 March 1818 9 February 1822 3 years,

314 days

Independent President for Life[d]

Republic of Haiti during the unification of Hispaniola (1822–1844)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
(2)   Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
9 February 1822 13 February 1843 21 years,

5 days

Independent President for Life
3   Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
4 April 1843 27 February 1844 329 days Independent President

Republic of Haiti (1844–1849)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
(3)   Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
27 February 1844 3 May 1844 66 days Independent President
4   Philippe Guerrier
(1757–1845)
3 May 1844 15 April 1845 348 days Independent President
5   Jean-Louis Pierrot
(1761–1857)
16 April 1845 24 March 1846 342 days Independent President
6   Jean-Baptiste Riché
(1780–1847)
24 March 1846 28 February 1847 342 days Independent President
7   Faustin Soulouque
(1782–1867)
2 March 1847 26 August 1849 2 years,

176 days

Independent President

Second Empire of Haiti (1849–1859)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Time in office Coronation Title(s)
2   Faustin I
(1782–1867)
26 August 1849 22 January 1859 9 years,

148 days

18 April 1852 Emperor of Haiti

Republic of Haiti (1859–1957)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
8   Fabre Geffrard
(1806–1878)
22 January 1859 13 March 1867 8 years,

50 days

Independent President
  Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
20 March 1867 2 May 1867 44 days Independent Provisional President
9   Sylvain Salnave
(1827–1870)
4 May 1867 27 December 1869 2 years,

236 days

Independent President
10   Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
27 December 1869 14 May 1874 4 years,

138 days

Liberal Party President
  Council of Secretaries of State 14 May 1874 14 June 1874 31 days Independent Council of Secretaries of State
11   Michel Domingue
(1813–1877)
14 June 1874 15 April 1876 1 year,

306 days

Independent President
12   Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
23 April 1876 17 July 1879 3 years,

85 days

Liberal Party Provisional President (23 April 1876 – 17 July 1876)
President (17 July 1876 – 17 July 1879)
  Joseph Lamothe
(?–1891)
26 July 1879 2 October 1879 3 years,

66 days

Independent Provisional President
13   Lysius Salomon
(1815–1888)
2 October 1879 10 August 1888 8 years,

312 days

National Party President
  Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
10 August 1888 16 October 1888 67 days Liberal Party Provisional President
14   François Denys Légitime
(1841–1935)
16 October 1888 23 August 1889 311 days Liberal Party President
  Monpoint Jeune
(1830–1905)
23 August 1889 17 October 1889 55 days Independent Provisional President
15   Florvil Hyppolite
(1828–1896)
17 October 1889 24 March 1896 6 years,

160 days

National Party President
16   Tirésias Simon Sam
(1835–1916)
31 March 1896 12 May 1902 6 years,

43 days

National Party President
  Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
26 May 1902 17 December 1902 206 days Liberal Party Provisional President
17   Pierre Nord Alexis
(1820–1910)
21 December 1902 2 December 1908 5 years,

346 days

Military President
18   François C. Antoine Simon
(1843–1923)
6 December 1908 3 August 1911 2 years,

242 days

Liberal Party President
19   Cincinnatus Leconte
(1854–1912)
15 August 1911 8 August 1912 359 days National Party President[e]
20   Tancrède Auguste
(1856–1913)
8 August 1912 2 May 1913 268 days National Party President
21   Michel Oreste
(1859–1918)
12 May 1913 27 January 1914 261 days Independent President
22   Oreste Zamor
(1861–1915)
8 February 1914 29 October 1914 264 days Military President
23   Joseph Davilmar Théodore
(1847–1917)
7 November 1914 22 February 1915 108 days Military President
24   Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
(1859–1915)
25 February 1915 28 July 1915 154 days Military President[f]
25   Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave
(1863–1926)
12 August 1915 15 May 1922 6 years,

276 days

Independent President[g]
26   Louis Borno
(1865–1942)
15 May 1922 15 May 1930 8 years Independent President[g]
27   Louis Eugène Roy
(1861–1939)
15 May 1930 18 November 1930 187 days Independent President[g]
28   Sténio Vincent
(1874–1959)
18 November 1930 15 May 1941 10 years,

179 days

Independent President[h]
29   Élie Lescot
(1883–1974)
15 May 1941 11 January 1946 4 years,

240 days

Liberal Party President
  Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
11 January 1946 16 August 1946 217 days Military Chairman of the Military Executive Committee
30   Dumarsais Estimé
(1900–1953)
16 August 1946 10 May 1950 3 years,

267 days

Independent President
  Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
10 May 1950 6 December 1950 210 days Military Chairman of the Government Junta
31   Paul Magloire
(1907–2001)
1950 6 December 1950 12 December 1956 6 years,

6 days

Peasant Worker Movement President
  Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis
(1900–1966)
12 December 1956 3 February 1957 54 days Independent Provisional President
  Franck Sylvain
(1909–1987)
7 February 1957 2 April 1957 54 days Independent Provisional President
  Executive Government Council 2 April 1957 25 May 1957 53 days Independent Executive Government Council
  Daniel Fignolé
(1913–1986)
25 May 1957 14 June 1957 20 days Peasant Worker Movement Provisional President
  Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau
(1909–1963)
14 June 1957 22 October 1957 130 days Military Chairman of the Military Council

Republic of Haiti during the Duvalier dynasty (1957–1986)Edit

Symbols
  • P Presidential referendum
  • C Constitutional referendum
  • Died in office
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Time in office Party Title(s)
style="background:Template:National Unity Party (Haiti)/meta/color; color:white" |32   François Duvalier
(1907–1971)
1957
1961[P]
1964[C]
22 October 1957 21 April 1971[†] 13 years,

182 days

National Unity Party President (22 October 1957 – 22 June 1964)
President for Life (22 June 1964 – 21 April 1971)
style="background:Template:National Unity Party (Haiti)/meta/color; color:white" |33   Jean-Claude Duvalier
(1951–2014)
1971[C]
1985[C]
21 April 1971 7 February 1986[i] 14 years,

290 days

National Unity Party President for Life

Republic of Haiti (1986–present)Edit

Symbols
  • I Indirect election
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Duration Party Title(s)
  Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
7 February 1986 7 February 1988 2 years Military President of the National Council of Government
34   Leslie Manigat
(1930–2014)
1988 7 February 1988 20 June 1988[j] 134 days Rally of Progressive National Democrats President
35   Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
20 June 1988 17 September 1988[k] 89 days Military President
36   Prosper Avril
(1937–)
17 September 1988 10 March 1990 1 year,

173 days

Military President
  Hérard Abraham
(1940–)
10 March 1990 13 March 1990 3 days Military Acting President
  Ertha Pascal-Trouillot
(1943–)
13 March 1990 7 February 1991 331 days Independent Provisional President
style="background:Template:Struggling People's Organization/meta/color; color:white" |37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
1990–91 7 February 1991 29 September 1991[l] 234 days Lavalas Political Organization President
N/A   Raoul Cédras
(1949–)
29 September 1991 8 October 1991 9 days Military Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces[m]
  Joseph Nérette
(1924–2007)
8 October 1991 19 June 1992 255 days Independent Provisional President
  Marc Bazin
(1932–2010)
19 June 1992 15 June 1993 361 days Movement for the Instauration of Democracy in Haiti Acting President
style="background:Template:Struggling People's Organization/meta/color; color:white" |37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
15 June 1993 12 May 1994 331 days Lavalas Political Organization President[n]
  Émile Jonassaint
(1913–1995)
12 May 1994 12 October 1994 153 days Independent Provisional President
style="background:Template:Struggling People's Organization/meta/color; color:white" |37   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
12 October 1994 7 February 1996 1 year,

117 days

Lavalas Political Organization President[o]
style="background:Template:Fanmi Lavalas/meta/color; color:white" |38   René Préval
(1943–2017)
1995 7 February 1996 7 February 2001 5 years Fanmi Lavalas President
style="background:Template:Fanmi Lavalas/meta/color; color:white" |39   Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
2000 7 February 2001 29 February 2004[p] 3 years,

22 days

Fanmi Lavalas President
  Boniface Alexandre
(1936–)
29 February 2004 14 May 2006 2 years,

75 days

Independent Provisional President
style="background:Template:Lespwa/meta/color; color:white" |40   René Préval
(1943–2017)
2006 14 May 2006 14 May 2011 5 years Lespwa[q] President
style="background:Template:Patriotic Unity/meta/color; color:white" |(40) Inite
style="background:Template:Repons Peyizan/meta/color; color:black" |41   Michel Martelly
(1961–)
2010–11 14 May 2011 7 February 2016 4 years,

267 days

Repons Peyizan President
  Council of Ministers 7 February 2016 14 February 2016 7 days Independent Council of Ministers
style="background:Template:Patriotic Unity/meta/color; color:white" |—   Jocelerme Privert
(1953–)
2016 (Feb)[I] 14 February 2016 7 February 2017 359 days Inite Provisional President[r]
style="background:Template:Haitian Tèt Kale Party/meta/color; color:white"|42   Jovenel Moïse
(1968–)
2016 (Nov) 7 February 2017 Incumbent 2 years,

153 days

Haitian Tèt Kale Party President

NotesEdit

  1. Rule limited to the northern State of Haiti
  2. Rule limited to the northern Kingdom of Haiti
  3. Rule limited to the southern Republic of Haiti
  4. United the northern Kingdom and the southern Republic in 1820
  5. Great-Grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Emperor of Haiti 1804–1806)
  6. Son of Tirésias Simon Sam (President of Haiti 1896–1902). Also the inspiration for Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Served under the United States occupation
  8. Served under the United States occupation until 1934
  9. Deposed in the Anti-Duvalier protest movement
  10. Deposed in the June 1988 coup d'état
  11. Deposed in the September 1988 coup d'état
  12. Deposed in the 1991 coup d'état
  13. De facto leader of Haiti (29 September 1991 – 12 October 1994)
  14. In exile, but recognized in Haiti
  15. Served under the United States occupation until 1995
  16. Deposed in the 2004 coup d'état
  17. Until November 2009
  18. Presidential term expired on 14 June 2016

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Schutt-Ainé, Patricia (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. p. 165. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0.