# Product (mathematics)

result of multiplying

In mathematics, a product is a number or a quantity obtained by multiplying two or more numbers together. For example: 4 × 7 = 28 Here, the number 28 is called the product of 4 and 7. The product of 6 and 4 will be 24,Because 6 times 4 is 24.also if you times 2 negative numbers it will be positive

## Use of (one form) of thhgreek letter "Π" (or "pi")

A short way to write the product of many numbers uses the capital Greek letter pi: $\prod$ . This notation (or way of writing) is in some ways similar to the Sigma notation. Informally, given a sequence of numbers (or elements of a multiplicative structure with unit) say $a_{i}$  we define $\prod _{1\leq i\leq n}a_{i}:=a_{1}\dotsm a_{n}$ . A rigorous definition is usually given recursively as follows

$\prod _{1\leq i\leq n}a_{i}:={\begin{cases}1&{\text{ for }}n=0,\\\left(\prod _{1\leq i\leq n-1}a_{i}\right)a_{n}&{\text{ for }}n\geq 1.\end{cases}}$

An alternative notation for $\prod _{1\leq i\leq n}$  is $\prod _{i=1}^{n}$ .

### Properties

$\prod _{i=1}^{n}i=1\cdot 2\cdot ...\cdot n=n!$  ($n!$  is pronounced "$n$  factorial" or "factorial of $n$ ");
$\prod _{i=1}^{n}x=x^{n}$ , i.e., the usual $n$ th power operation;
$\prod _{i=1}^{n}n=n^{n}$ , i.e., we multiply $n$  by itself $n$  times;
$\prod _{i=1}^{n}c\cdot i=\prod _{i=1}^{n}c\cdot \prod _{i=1}^{n}i=c^{n}\cdot n!$  where $c$  is a constant independent of $i$ .

From the above equation we can see that any number with an exponent can be represented by a product, though it normally is not desirable.

Unlike summation, the sums of two terms cannot be separated into different sums. That is,

$\prod _{i=1}^{4}(3+4)\neq \prod _{i=1}^{4}3+\prod _{i=1}^{4}4$ ,

This can be thought of in terms of polynomials: one generally cannot separate terms inside them before they are raised to an exponent. But the product does,

$\prod _{i=1}^{n}a_{i}b_{i}=\prod _{i=1}^{n}a_{i}\prod _{i=1}^{n}b_{i}.$

### Relation to Summation

The product of powers with the same base can be written as an exponential of the sum of the powers' exponents:

$\prod _{i=1}^{n}a^{c_{i}}=a^{c_{1}}\cdot a^{c_{2}}\dotsm a^{c_{n}}=a^{c_{1}+c_{2}+...+c_{n}}=a^{(\sum _{i=1}^{n}c_{i})}$