Rafael Antonio Caldera Rodríguez (Spanish pronunciation: [rafaˈel anˈtonjo kalˈdeɾa roˈðɾiɣes]; 24 January 1916 – 24 December 2009), twice elected President of Venezuela, served for two five-year terms (1969-1974 and 1994-1999), becoming the longest serving democratically elected leader to govern the country in the twentieth century.
|President of Venezuela|
2 February 1994 – 2 February 1999
|Preceded by||Ramón José Velásquez|
|Succeeded by||Hugo Chávez|
11 March 1969 – 12 March 1974
|Preceded by||Raúl Leoni|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Andrés Pérez|
|Senator for Life|
12 March 1974 – 2 February 1994
2 February 1999 – 20 December 1999
|President of the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress of Venezuela|
|Solicitor General of Venezuela|
26 October 1945 – 13 April 1946
Rafael Antonio Caldrea Rodríguez
24 January 1916
San Felipe, Yaracuy, Venezuela
|Died||24 December 2009 (aged 93)|
|Spouse(s)||Alicia Pietri Montemayor|
|Alma mater||Central University of Venezuela|
Widely acknowledged as one of the founders of Venezuela’s democratic system, the main architect of the 1961 Constitution, and a pioneer of the Christian Democratic movement in Latin America, Caldera helped forge an unprecedented period of civilian democratic rule in a country beleaguered by a history of political violence and military caudillos.
His leadership established Venezuela’s reputation as one of the more stable democracies in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century.
After graduating with a degree in law and political science from Central University of Venezuela in 1939, Caldera embarked on a 70-year long career that combined political, intellectual and academic activities.
- Profile of Rafael Antonio Caldera Rodríguez - Encyclopedia Britannica
- Rafael Caldera - Cognitio
- John D. Martz, “Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador,” in Jan Knippers Black, ed. Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise, 2nd ed. (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991), 439
- Rafael Caldera: President of Venezuela who helped forge an era of democracy and political stability in his country - Independent
- 02 Feb 1994 - 02 Feb 1999 - Rafael Caldera Rodríguez - Global Security
- (in Spanish) Rafael Caldera Archived 2005-10-29 at Archive.today — Official biography.
- (in Spanish) Rafael Caldera Archived 2006-06-16 at the Wayback Machine — Biography from National Convergence webpage.
- (in Spanish) Speeches and Biography
- (in Spanish) Extended bio by CIDOB Foundation