Republic of China

country in East Asia

The Republic of China[14][15] (traditional Chinese: 中華民國; simplified Chinese: 中华民国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), was a country in East Asia that governed all of China before. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is located to the northwest; Japan is to the northeast; the Philippines is to the south. The Chinese Nationalists lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communists in 1949 and moved the government of the Republic of China from Nanjing to Taipei. Constitutionally, it still claims the ownership of all of China, including Mainland China, Hainan and several off-shore islands, Taiwan, Mongolia, northern Myanmar (Burma), and Tuva (now Russian territory), as part of the ROC,[16] however this is rarely noted in recent years.

Republic of China
Chunghwa Minkuo'
Zhōnghuá Mínguó
A blue circular emblem on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.
Anthem: "National Anthem of the Republic of China"

National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China
A map depicting the location of the Republic of China in East Asia and in the World.
red area shows territories controlled by ROC
Largest cityNew Taipei
Official languagesnone
Ethnic groups
>95% Han Chinese[2]
  70% Hokkien
  14% Hakka
  14% Waishengren[a]
2.3% Aborigines[b]
Demonym(s)Taiwanese[3][4][5] or Chinese[6] or both
GovernmentPresidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen[7]
Chen Chien-jen
• Premier
Su Tseng-chang
10 October 1911
• Republic established
1 January 1912
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
7 December 1949
29 January 1962
23 March 1996
• Total
36,191.4667 km2 (13,973.6034 sq mi) (136th)
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
23,174,528[8][c] (49th)
• Density
640/km2 (1,657.6/sq mi) (16th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$900,210 billion[9] (19th)
• Per capita
$39,245[9] (20th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$489.387 billion[9] (24th)
• Per capita
$21,832[9] (37th)
Gini (2008)34.1[10]
HDI (2010)Increase 0.868[11][12]
very high
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8 (not observed)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet, .台灣,[13] .台湾
a. ^ See also Names of China.

b. ^ Nanking (now Nanjing) was the seat of the government from 1928 until 1949 except during wars, when the government retreated to Taipei.

c. ^ Population and density ranks based on 2008 figures.


The territory the Republic of China (ROC) controls is known by most people as the island[17] of Taiwan. Most places on Taiwan Island are called "Taiwan Province" by the government of the Republic of China for official business, except the two largest cities of Taipei and Kaohsiung. West of Taiwan Island, there are three small groups of islands that also belong to ROC. They are:

  • The Pescadores (Penghu, 澎湖列島): They also are part of Taiwan Province.
  • Quemoy (Kinmen, 金門): A part of Fujian province, called Kinmen County(金門縣).
  • Matsu (馬祖列島): the smallest county, called Lienchiang County(連江縣), also part of Fujian province
  • Diaoyutai Islands:The Diaoyutai Islands (釣魚臺列嶼|Diàoyútái Lièyû|ㄉㄧㄠˋㄩˊㄊㄞˊㄌㄧㄝˋㄩˊ) are a group of islands where nobody lives that the Republic of China (ROC) claims it belong to them, but also claimed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Japan. In Japanese, the islands are known as the Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島, Senkaku Shotō?). The islands are now under the control of Japan.
  • Dong-Sha Islands:The Pratas Islands or Dong-Sha Islands (東沙羣島) consists of three islands in the northeastern South China Sea, 340 km southeast of Hong Kong.
  • Taiping (Traditional Chinese: 太平島|Tàipíngdǎo|ㄊㄞˋㄆㄧㄥˊㄉㄠˇ), also known as Itu Aba, is the largest of the Nansha Islands (Spratly Islands) in the South China Sea.

The ROC used to govern Mainland China too, from 1911 - 1949, and was a founding member of the UN (as China) in 1945. Today, Mainland China is governed by the Communist People's Republic of China; see History and Political problems of China. However, ROC still declares Mainland China as its territory officially. The Republic of China also used to govern Mongolia.

This is the territory of the Republic of China between 1912 and 1949.

Administrative divisionsEdit


There are administrative divisions in different levels and types.

157 Districts (區 qū ㄑㄩ), 17 Country-controlled cities (縣轄市 xiànxiáshì ㄒㄧㄢˋㄒㄧㄚˊㄕˋ), 41 Urban Townships (鎮 zhèn ㄓㄣˋ), and 153 Rural Townships (鄉 xiāng ㄒㄧㄤ) stand the 3rd level. Districts stand under either Special municipalities or Provincial cities; Country-controlled cities, Urban Townships, and Rural Townships stand under Counties.

Villages (里 lǐ ㄌㄧˇ or 村 cūn ㄘㄨㄣ) stand the 4th level, and Neighborhoods (鄰 lín ㄌㄧㄣˊ) stand the 5th level.


ROC take Taiwan in 1945 after Japan Surrendered

The Nationalists, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, got rid of the Qing Dynasty ruled by the Manchus, then they established the ROC and ended Imperial Dynastic Rule in late-1911. The ROC at that time had Mainland China and all of what is now called Mongolia.

After the Japanese were defeated by the Allies during World War II, Taiwan was controlled by the ROC.

In 1949, the Chinese Communists fought a war against the Nationalists and won. They established the People's Republic of China. The Nationalists left mainland China and arrived in Taiwan.


After the ROC created a base on Taiwan, it hoped one day to capture the Mainland. But Chinese Communists grew stronger, so the Nationalists never did go back. The Communists say they replaced the ROC as the only government of China and also calls Taiwan their own.

Polls show a majority of people in Taiwan want to never be a part of the People's Republic of China. Some of these people believe in complete Taiwan independence and want to rename the ROC (Taiwan) to "Republic of Taiwan" so Taiwan can participate in international affairs. Most others want the status quo, which means keeping everything the way it is now. A small minority wish to someday unite with the People's Republic of China; they want Chinese reunification.


Most Taiwanese people speak the Standard Chinese language known as Mandarin, and others speak local dialects such as Min Nan (Taiwanese) or Hakka. The Cantonese language, spoken in parts of southern China (for example, the province of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau), is not spoken in Taiwan. A small percentage of Aboriginal Taiwanese speak aboriginal languages, but the rest of the Chinese people have treated them badly, and many of these people, and their languages, struggle to survive. Some older Taiwanese people who went to school while the country was under Japanese rule can speak Japanese.

After the Nationalist government fled the Mainland in 1949, they brought Mandarin and promoted it in Taiwan. Then everyone in the ROC had to learn Mandarin. But, unlike the people in Mainland China, the Taiwanese never changed to simplified Chinese characters and so they have always used traditional Chinese characters. In the past, students were not allowed to speak their mother tongue in school and were expected to speak only Mandarin. Taiwanese, Hakka, and native languages were considered bad until the early 1990s, when education in these languages began to be taught in some school systems. They were promoted, but by this time, many young people could speak only Mandarin.

Currently, nearly one third of Taiwanese report knowing some amount of English. Full English fluency is not common, however. The government plans to expand English education and make it an official language by 2030.


  1. Waishengren usually refers to people who immigrated from mainland China to Taiwan after 1945, also the Chinese refugees migrated to Taiwan due to the Chinese Civil War, and to their descendants born in Taiwan. It does not include citizens of the People's Republic of China who more recently moved to Taiwan.
  2. Taiwanese aborigines are officially categorised into 16 separate ethnic groups by the Republic of China. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49


  1. "Yearbook 2004". Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-12-05. Taipei is the capital of the ROC
  2. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 36.
  3. "The ROC's Humanitarian Relief Program for Afghan Refugees". 2001-12-11. Archived from the original on December 15, 2004. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  4. "Taiwanese health official invited to observe bird-flu conference". 2005-11-11. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  5. "Demonyms – Names of Nationalities". Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  6. Although the territories controlled by the ROC imply that the demonym is "Taiwanese", some consider that it is "Chinese" due to the claims of the ROC over all of China. Taiwanese people have various opinions regarding their own national identity.
  7. "Office of the President, Republic of China". Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  8. "MOI Statistical Information Service". Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Republic of China (Taiwan)". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
  10. Regularly check CIA factbook or "Household Income distribution of major countries". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. Due to its political status, the UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2010 to be 0.868, and would rank 18th among countries.
  13. "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010.
  14. "Constitution of the Republic of China (Taiwan)".{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. "The Banking Act of The Republic of China".{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. "編印大陸地區地圖注意事項". Wikiwand. Retrieved 2022-08-17.
  17. "GEOFON Program GFZ Potsdam :: Earthquake Bulletin".