Richard I of England

King of England (reigned 1189–99)
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Richard I of England (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was the King of England from 1189 to 1199. He was also Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times. He is sometimes called Richard the Lionheart or Richard coeur de lion which means the same thing in French. Richard was the son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. As the third son, he was not expected to inherit the throne, and he was a replacement child.[1] At the age of 11, he became Duke of Aquitaine.

Richard I "the Lionheart"
King of England
King of England
Reign6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199
Coronation3 September 1189
PredecessorHenry II "Curtmantle"
SuccessorJohn "Lackland"
RegentQueen Eleanor; William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely (Third Crusade)
Born(1157-09-08)8 September 1157
Beaumont Palace, Oxford
Died6 April 1199(1199-04-06) (aged 41)
Châlus, Limousin
Burial
SpouseBerengaria of Navarre
HouseHouse of Plantagenet
FatherHenry II "Curtmantle"
MotherEleanor of Aquitaine
ReligionCatholic Christian

Later, Richard was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade against Saladin. During his journey, he conquered Sicily and Cyprus. He fought in the Siege of Acre and the Battle of Arsuf. In the end, the crusade did not succeed: Richard was never able to win back Jerusalem from the Muslims. He decided to return home to England.

On his way back from the crusade, Richard was captured by Duke Leopold of Austria. The English people had to pay a huge ransom to set him free. He was considered a brave and noble king, but he spent only six months of his eleven-year reign in England. He died after being shot with a crossbow while besieging a castle in Limousin.

King Richard’s remains were buried in different places.[2] His body was buried at Fontevraud Abbey near Saumur in France,[2] with his father and mother. His internal organs were buried at Châlus, (at The Château de Châlus-Chabrol), near Limoges in central France.[2] His heart was buried in the Notre Dame Cathedral at Rouen.[2]

King Richard’s heart was found in 1838 and was examined by scientists in 2012.[2] They did tests for poisons, because one medieval story claimed Richard had died from a poisoned arrow. They found no evidence to support this idea. Richard probably died from gangrene or septicaemia from the arrow wound.[2]

Richard was succeeded by his younger brother, John.

Richard I of England

Legacy

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Because of his military exploits his popular image is still dominated by the positive qualities of chivalry and military competence. Contemporaries considered Richard as both a king and a knight famed for personal martial prowess, this was apparently the first instance of such a combination. He was known as a valiant, competent military leader and individual fighter who was courageous and generous. Victorian England admired King Richard I as a crusader and a man of God, erecting a heroic statue of him outside the Westminster Palace.

King Richard I of England was seen as a pious hero by his subjects. He is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.

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References

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  1. Adam Taylor (8 September 2014). "'A spare to the heir': The weirdness of being a royal sibling". The Washington Pose. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Morelle, Rebecca (28 February 2013). "Richard the Lionheart's mummified heart analysed". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2013.