Richard I of England
Richard I of England (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was the king of England from 1189 to 1199. He is sometimes called Richard the Lionheart. Richard was the son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. As the third son and not expected to inherit the throne, he was a replacement child. In 1168 he became Duke of Aquitaine.
|Richard I "the Lionheart"|
|King of the English; Lord of Ireland|
|Reign||6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199|
|Coronation||3 September 1189|
|Predecessor||Henry II "Curtmantle"|
|Regent||Queen Eleanor; William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely (Third Crusade)|
|Born||8 September 1157|
Beaumont Palace, Oxford
|Died||6 April 1199 (aged 41)|
|Spouse||Berengaria of Navarre|
|House||House of Plantagenet|
|Father||Henry II "Curtmantle"|
|Mother||Eleanor of Aquitaine|
Richard was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade against Saladin, which never actually succeeded. During his journey, he conquered Sicily and Cyprus. He fought in the Battle of Acre and the Battle of Arsuf. In the end, as he was unable to win back Jerusalem from the Muslims, he decided to return home to England. On his way back from the Crusade, Richard was captured by the Austrian Duke, Leopold I. The English people had to pay a huge ransom to set him free. He was considered a very brave and noble king, but he did not spend a lot of time in England - only six months of his eleven-year reign were spent in his country.
He died after being shot with a crossbow while besieging a castle in Limousin. His remains were buried at different places. His body was buried at Fontevraud Abbey near Saumur in France, as are his father and mother. His internal organs were buried at Châlus, (at The Château de Châlus-Chabrol), near Limoges in central France. His heart was buried in the Notre Dame Cathedral at Rouen. It was found in 1838 and was examined by scientists in 2012. They did tests for poisons, as one medieval story claimed Richard had died from a poisoned arrow. There is no evidence to support this idea, and he probably died from gangrene or septicaemia from the arrow wound.
Richard was succeeded by his younger brother, John.
King Richard I of England left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits and his popular image tended to be dominated by the positive qualities of chivalry and military competence. Contemporaries considered Richard as both a king and a knight famed for personal martial prowess, this was apparently the first instance of such a combination. He was known as a valiant, competent military leader and individual fighter who was courageous and generous. Victorian England admired King Richard I as a crusader and a man of God, erecting a heroic statue of him outside the Westminster Palace.
King Richard I of England was seen as a pious hero by his subjects, he remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number and he is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.
- Adam Taylor (8 September 2014). "'A spare to the heir': The weirdness of being a royal sibling". The Washington Pose. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Morelle, Rebecca (28 February 2013). "Richard the Lionheart's mummified heart analysed". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2013.