San Francisco

consolidated city and county in California, United States
(Redirected from San Francisco, California)

San Francisco is a city in the state of California in the United States. It is in the northern part of California, between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. With 873,965 people in 2020, San Francisco is the 4th largest city in California and the 17th largest city in the United States. It is the economic and cultural center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a metropolitan area with over 7 million people. The city is famous for the Golden Gate Bridge, steep hills, unique architecture, and its large LGBTQ+ population.

San Francisco, California
City and County of San Francisco
San Francisco from the Marin Headlands
Flag of San Francisco, California
Official seal of San Francisco, California
Nicknames: 
Motto(s): 
Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra (Spanish)
(English: "Gold in Peace, Iron in War")
Anthem: I Left My Heart in San Francisco[2]
Map
Interactive map outlining San Francisco
San Francisco is located in California
San Francisco
San Francisco
Location within California
San Francisco is located in the United States
San Francisco
San Francisco
Location within the United States
San Francisco is located in North America
San Francisco
San Francisco
Location within North America
San Francisco is located in Earth
San Francisco
San Francisco
San Francisco (Earth)
Coordinates: 37°46′39″N 122°24′59″W / 37.77750°N 122.41639°W / 37.77750; -122.41639
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountySan Francisco
CSASan Jose–San Francisco–Oakland
MetroSan Francisco–Oakland–Hayward
MissionJune 29, 1776[3]
IncorporatedApril 15, 1850[4]
Founded byJosé Joaquín Moraga
Francisco Palóu
Named forSt. Francis of Assisi
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyBoard of Supervisors
 • MayorLondon Breed (D)[5]
 • Supervisors[7]
 • Assembly members[8][9]David Chiu (D)
Phil Ting (D)
 • State senatorScott Wiener (D)[6]
 • United States Representatives[10][11]Nancy Pelosi (D)
Jackie Speier (D)
Area
 • City and county231.89 sq mi (600.59 km2)
 • Land46.9 sq mi (121.48 km2)
 • Water184.99 sq mi (479.11 km2)  80.00%
 • Metro
3,524.4 sq mi (9,128 km2)
Elevation52 ft (16 m)
Highest elevation934 ft (285 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • City and county873,965
 • Rank17th in the United States
4th in California
 • Density18,634.65/sq mi (7,194.31/km2)
 • Metro4,749,008 (12th)
Demonym(s)San Franciscan
San Francisqueño/a
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
ZIP Codes[17]
List
  • 94102–94105
  • 94107–94112
  • 94114–94134
  • 94137
  • 94139–94147
  • 94151
  • 94158–94161
  • 94163–94164
  • 94172
  • 94177
  • 94188
Area codes415/628[18]
FIPS code06-67000
GNIS feature IDs277593, 2411786
GDP (2019)[19]City—$203.5billion

MSA—$591.9 billion (4th)

CSA—$1.086 trillion (3rd)
Websitesf.gov

Spanish explorers created San Francisco in 1776. They called it "Yerba Buena", which is Spanish for "Good Herb", because a lot of mint grew there.[20] After the Mexican-American War, the United States took over Yerba Buena. In 1848 its name was changed to "San Francisco". It became a city in 1850. San Francisco was a center of the Beat Generation in the 1950s and the Hippie movement in the 1960s. Today, it is a center of social and political liberalism.

When the California Gold Rush started in 1848, San Francisco's port became very important. Immigrants came by sea from around the world. During World War II, the city was a center of war industries.[21] In the 1990s, the economy became focused on internet companies and other high tech. Many of the world's largest companies have their main offices in San Francisco, such as Wells Fargo, Salesforce, Uber, Airbnb, Twitter, Levi's, Gap, Dropbox, and Lyft.[22][23] The city has among the highest average incomes and highest housing costs in the United States.

Geography change

San Francisco is at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Pacific Ocean is to its west, and the San Francisco Bay is to its east. The Golden Gate, a strait that connects the ocean and the bay, is to its north. The cities of Daly City and Brisbane, in San Mateo County, are to its south. It has a total land area of 46.9 square miles, or 121 square kilometers.

Several islands are part of the city: Alcatraz, Treasure Island, and Yerba Buena Island in the bay, and the Farallon Islands in the ocean. The Farallon Islands are a protected nature reserve. Only scientists can visit them.

 
City center of San Francisco

Climate change

San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb in the Köppen climate classification). The record high temperature is 41.1 °C (106 °F) on September 1, 2017. The record low temperature is -4.4 °C (24 °F) on December 9, 1972.

Climate data for San Francisco (1981-2010, Sun 1961-1974, Extremes 1874-)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
27.2
(81.0)
29.4
(84.9)
34.4
(93.9)
38.3
(100.9)
39.4
(102.9)
39.4
(102.9)
36.7
(98.1)
41.1
(106.0)
38.9
(102.0)
30.0
(86.0)
24.4
(75.9)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
15.7
(60.3)
16.6
(61.9)
17.3
(63.1)
17.9
(64.2)
19.1
(66.4)
19.2
(66.6)
20.1
(68.2)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
17.3
(63.1)
13.9
(57.0)
17.7
(63.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
8.6
(47.5)
9.2
(48.6)
9.6
(49.3)
10.6
(51.1)
11.6
(52.9)
12.3
(54.1)
12.8
(55.0)
12.8
(55.0)
12.1
(53.8)
10.1
(50.2)
7.8
(46.0)
10.4
(50.8)
Record low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.2
(36.0)
3.9
(39.0)
6.7
(44.1)
5.6
(42.1)
5.0
(41.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 114.3
(4.50)
113.3
(4.46)
82.8
(3.26)
37.1
(1.46)
17.8
(0.70)
4.1
(0.16)
0.0
(0.0)
1.5
(0.06)
5.3
(0.21)
28.4
(1.12)
80.3
(3.16)
115.8
(4.56)
600.7
(23.65)
Average rainy days 11.7 11.1 11.0 6.5 3.8 1.5 0.3 1.0 1.7 3.9 8.9 11.6 73.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.9 207.7 269.1 309.3 325.1 311.4 313.3 287.4 271.4 247.1 173.4 160.6 3,061.7
Source 1: NOAA[24][25]
Source 2: Intellicast[26]

Government and politics change

San Francisco is officially called the City and County of San Francisco. It is the only city in California that is also a county. It is a charter city, which means it can choose its own system of government.

San Francisco has a mayor and a board of supervisors. The city is divided into 11 districts. Each district elects one supervisor to the board. Half of them are elected every two years. They serve as supervisor for four years after the election. The mayor is elected every four years. Elections for mayor and supervisors use instant-runoff voting.[27]

Since 1960, San Francisco has voted for the Democratic candidate in every presidential election. Since 2004, the Democratic candidate has won more than 80% of the votes in each election. Every mayor since 1964 has been a Democrat.

Transport change

Public transport change

The city of San Francisco has a public transport system called San Francisco Municipal Railway, or Muni for short. It operates light rail trains, called Muni Metro; buses; streetcars; and cable cars. The cable cars are the oldest and the most famous.

Bay Area Rapid Transit, or BART, operates one rapid transit train line through San Francisco. It carries people south to San Mateo County and to San Francisco International Airport and east, then south under the bay, towards Oakland and San Jose.

Caltrain operates one train line. It goes from San Francisco south to San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties.

Ferries travel across the bay from San Francisco to Marin County, Vallejo, Richmond, Oakland, Alameda, and South San Francisco.

Roads and bridges change

The Bay Bridge connects San Francisco to Oakland. It is made of two separate bridges. Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island are between them. The bridge carries Interstate 80.

The Golden Gate Bridge connects San Francisco to Marin County in the north. It carries U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1.

U.S. Route 101 enters San Francisco from the south. The southern part is a freeway. Interstate 80 then branches off to the east and goes to the Bay Bridge. The next part of U.S. Route 101 is on city streets: Van Ness Avenue, then Lombard Street, then Richardson Avenue. It becomes a freeway again and travels to the Golden Gate Bridge.

Interstate 280 enters San Francisco from the southwest. It travels northwest, then ends before the Bay Bridge.

State Route 1 branches off from Interstate 280 in southwest San Francisco. It travels north as 19th Avenue. It crosses Golden Gate Park, and then becomes Park Presidio Boulevard. It merges with U.S. Route 101 before the Golden Gate Bridge.

Airports change

The main airport for San Francisco is San Francisco International Airport (SFO). The city owns this airport, but the airport is south of the city in San Mateo County. Oakland International Airport (OAK) is also near the city. San Jose International Airport (SJC) is somewhat farther away.

Notable people change

References change

  1. Garling, Caleb (June 30, 2013). "Don't Call It Frisco: The History of San Francisco's Nicknames". The Bold Italic. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  2. Museum of San Francisco, retrieved June 17, 2020.
  3. Edward F. O'Day (October 1926). "The Founding of San Francisco". San Francisco Water. Spring Valley Water Authority. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
  4. "San Francisco: Government". SFGov.org. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012. San Francisco was incorporated as a City on April 15th, 1850 by act of the Legislature.
  5. "Office of the Mayor : Home". City & County of San Francisco. Archived from the original on October 24, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  6. "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
  7. "Board of Supervisors". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  8. "Communities of Interest – City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  9. "Members Assembly". California State Assembly. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  10. "Communities of Interest – City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  11. "Directory of Representatives". U.S. House of Representatives.
  12. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  13. "San Francisco". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". US Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
  15. "QuickFacts: San Francisco city, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  16. "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  17. "ZIP Codes for City of San Francisco, CA". 2010 United States census. 2010. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2021 – via Zip-Codes.com.
  18. "NPA City Report". North American Numbering Plan Administration. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
  19. "GDP by County, Metro, and Other Areas; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)".
  20. "Yerba Buena Renamed San Francisco - 1847". www.sfmuseum.org.
  21. "Port of San Francisco". World Port Source. Archived from the original on April 27, 2023. Retrieved April 27, 2023.
  22. San Francisco Chronicle Editorial Board (August 21, 2022). "Downtown San Francisco is dying. This bill could help save it". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  23. "Companies ranked by Market Cap - CompaniesMarketCap.com". companiesmarketcap.com. Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  24. "Error 403 is HTTP_FORBIDDEN Redirect Page".
  25. "National Weather Service - NWS San Francisco/Monterey Bay Area". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07.
  26. "Intellicast - Weather Underground". www.wunderground.com.
  27. "When First Choice Is Second Best". City Journal. Retrieved 2023-05-10.

Other websites change