Seasonal affective disorder

mental depression that involves presentation of depressive symptoms only during a specific season of the year

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)[1], also called winter depression, winter blues, summer depression and seasonal depression, is a mood disorder that happens in people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year. They show depressive symptoms at the same time each year, usually in the winter.[2][3]

Cause and Symptoms change

Some people think that SAD is related to not having enough serotonin because they don't get enough sunlight, which could cause serotonin polymorphisms. Serotonin polymorphisms could be the cause in SAD,[4] although it has been disputed (people think it's not correct).[5]

Some symptoms are:[6]

  • Feeling sad, grumpy anxious or moody (getting angry or sad without warning)
  • Losing interest in your usual activities
  • Gaining weight
  • Sleep and appetite problems
  • Less social interaction
  • Difficulty concentrating and making choices
  • Feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness

Treatment change

Treatments include light therapy, medication, ionized-air administration,[7] cognitive-behavioral therapy, and taking the hormone melatonin at the right time.[8] Doctors often cure SAD with bright light therapy,[9][10] although normal light therapy is the most common treatment for SAD. Part of light therapy can include being in sunlight, either directly from being outside,[11] or by using a computer controlled heliostat (a device that includes a mirror, usually a plain mirror, usually turns to keep reflecting sunlight on a specific object) to reflect into the windows of a home or office. Physical exercise is also a good form of therapy for SAD, especially when combined with other forms of treatments.[12]

References change

  1. "Overview - Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)". 2021-02-12. Retrieved 2024-05-21.
  2. Ivry, Sara (2002-08-13). "Seasonal Depression Can Accompany Summer Sun". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  3. Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna (2014-05-01). "Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder". Chronobiology International. 31 (4): 523–531. doi:10.3109/07420528.2013.874355. ISSN 0742-0528. PMID 24397301. S2CID 22428871.
  4. Johansson, C.; Smedh, C.; Partonen, T.; Pekkarinen, P.; Paunio, T.; Ekholm, J.; Peltonen, L.; Lichtermann, D.; Palmgren, J. (2001-04-01). "Seasonal Affective Disorder and Serotonin-Related Polymorphisms". Neurobiology of Disease. 8 (2): 351–357. doi:10.1006/nbdi.2000.0373. PMID 11300730. S2CID 10841651.
  5. Johansson, C.; Willeit, M.; Levitan, R.; Partonen, T.; Smedh, C.; Favero, J. Del; Kacem, S. Bel; Praschak-Rieder, N.; Neumeister, A. (July 2003). "The serotonin transporter promoter repeat length polymorphism, seasonal affective disorder and seasonality". Psychological Medicine. 33 (5): 785–792. doi:10.1017/S0033291703007372. ISSN 1469-8978. PMID 12877393. S2CID 45837170.
  6. "Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic". Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  7. Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan Su (2006-12-01). "Controlled Trial of Naturalistic Dawn Simulation and Negative Air Ionization for Seasonal Affective Disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (12): 2126–2133. doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.12.2126. ISSN 0002-953X. PMID 17151164.
  8. "NIMH » Recent Science News". Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  9. Avery, D. H.; Kizer, D.; Bolte, M. A.; Hellekson, C. (2001-04-01). "Bright light therapy of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder in the workplace: morning vs. afternoon exposure". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 103 (4): 267–274. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00078.x. ISSN 1600-0447. PMID 11328240. S2CID 1342943.
  10. Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit (2007-09-14). "Is Internal Timing Key to Mental Health?". Science. 317 (5844): 1488–1490. doi:10.1126/science.317.5844.1488. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17872420. S2CID 71387673. Archived from the original on 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  11. Beck, Melinda (2009-12-01). "Bright Ideas for Treating the Winter Blues". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  12. Pinchasov, Boris B.; Shurgaja, Alexandra M.; Grischin, Oleg V.; Putilov, Arcady A. (2000-04-24). "Mood and energy regulation in seasonal and non-seasonal depression before and after midday treatment with physical exercise or bright light". Psychiatry Research. 94 (1): 29–42. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(00)00138-4. PMID 10788675. S2CID 12731381.