Serotonin

monoamine neurotransmitter

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. Its chemical name is 5-Hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. It is derived from tryptophan. Serotonin is found in all vertebrates, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract, blood platelets and central nervous system. Its name is derived from its effect on blood pressure: serotonin is a part of the serum which regulates the tonus of blood vessels.

Serotonin does several jobs within the human body. Unlike dopamine, serotonin causes happiness, while dopamine causes pleasure.[1] It is believed to regulate mood, intestinal activity and appetite, memory, and sleep. Many antidepressant medications are thought to work by increasing the levels of serotonin in the body.[2][3] Some non-medical treatments for depression have also been shown to raise serotonin levels.[4]

Serotonin is also found in insect venom, fungi and plants.[5] Its presence in the seeds of many fruits helps speed those seeds through the digestive tract of animals that consume them.[6] In insect venom, it causes pain, and sometimes death, through its effect on smooth muscle contraction.[7]

Serotonin is involved in social rank. A lobster injected with serotonin behaves like an alpha male.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Kauper, Gabriel. "Happiness vs. Pleasure and Why it Matters at Work". blog.deliveringhappiness.com. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  2. "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  3. Stahl, S. M. (December 1998). "Mechanism of action of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin receptors and pathways mediate therapeutic effects and side effects". Journal of Affective Disorders. 51 (3): 215–235. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00221-3. ISSN 0165-0327. PMID 10333979.
  4. Young, Simon N. (November 2007). "How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs". Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : Jpn. 32 (6): 394–399. ISSN 1180-4882. PMC 2077351. PMID 18043762.
  5. Kang K, Park S, Kim YS, Lee S, Back K (2009). "Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of serotonin derivatives". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 83 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1007/s00253-009-1956-1. PMID 19308403. S2CID 34371810.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. "Serotonin in Plants". News-Medical.net. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  7. Inglis-Arkell, Esther. "Why is There Serotonin in Animal Venom?". io9. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  8. Kravitz, E. A. (30 September 1988). "Hormonal control of behavior: amines and the biasing of behavioral output in lobsters". Science. 241 (4874): 1775–1781. Bibcode:1988Sci...241.1775K. doi:10.1126/science.2902685. PMID 2902685 – via science.sciencemag.org.