Shortening is a semisolid fat used in baking. It makes foods crumbly. Shortening doesn't smoke as easily as butter or oil, and it is 100% fat. Butter is 80% fat. It works by stopping long gluten polymers from forming in the food. It does not need to be refrigerated. It also is cheaper than butter. It can make foods last longer.
- Macronutrients, Panel on (2004). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-65520-0. OCLC 929504737.