The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (June 2012)
Transphobia is any prejudice or discrimination based on bad feelings toward transgender or transsexual people. This also means refusing them the chance to take part in society, have a job, or forcing prostitution out of them, not only hate speech or hate crime against the transgender person. In 2009, to prohibit hate crime against transgender people, Matthew Shepard Act was passed and entered into force by recognition of the president Barack Obama in the United States.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees point out the asylum seekers because of gender identity together with the Yogyakarta Principles. But a transgender woman who has escaped from Guatemala to Denmark has been put into a male centre and raped there. Now she is in danger to be returned into Guatemala by Danish government.
Transphobia is common all over the world. It is also found in social justice movements such as feminism. It is especially associated with radical feminism. 'Transmisogyny' is a word that refers to transphobia towards trans women. Julia Serano made it popular with her book Whipping Girl. Cissexism is sometimes used as a synonym for transphobia, and cisphobia is sometimes used as its antonym.
Misgendering and exclusionEdit
Violence against transgender peopleEdit
In a 2012 study of transgender people in the United Kingdom, 14% had been sexually assaulted for being transgender. 6% had been raped because they were transgender. These are hate crimes. 38% had been sexually harassed because they were transgender.
A review of American studies on sexual violence against transgender people found that about 50% of transgender people have been sexually assaulted.
Transphobia at workEdit
In 2013 there was a study about transphobia in the American workforce. It found that 26% of transgender people had been fired for being transgender. Transgender people are not protected against employment discrimination under US law. The National Transgender Discrimination Survey found that 60% of Native American transgender people had not been given a job because of being transgender. 10% were sexually assaulted at work.
Transgender people are put in prison more often than cisgender (non-transgender) people. The biggest study about discrimination against transgender people found that 16% of transgender people had been in prison. Black transgender people were even more likely to have been in prison. 41% of black transgender people said that they had been put in prison because of discrimination. They are often not put in prisons that match their gender identities. They may also be refused hormones. A famous example of this is Chelsea Manning.
Transphobia has been identified as a predictor of HIV risk and suicide attempts in transgender people. A study found that transgender women are 49 times more likely to have HIV compared with adults in general.
Human rights enforcementEdit
- Natacha (16 August 2012). "UnCommon Sense: "What I'm most afraid of when I go back, isn't being killed. What really petrifies me is being attacked and tortured."".
- Serano, Julia (20 May 2009). Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity. Seal Press. ISBN 978-0-7867-4791-7.
- Talusan, Meredith Ramirez (June 4th 2015). "What 'deadnaming' means, and why you shouldn't do it to Caitlyn Jenner". Check date values in:
- "Endtransdiscrimination.org" (PDF). endtransdiscrimination.org.
- http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/reports/ntds_native_american_3.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Tarzwell, Sydney. "The Gender Liens are Marked with Razor Wire: Addressing State Prison Policies and Practices for the Management of Transgender Prisoners". Columbia Human Rights Law Review. 38: 167.
- Bennett-Smith, Meredith (2 April 2013). "Transgender Women 49 Times More Likely To Have HIV, Study Says" – via Huff Post.